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Russenorsk. Cari McLean. Historical Background. used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain. flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg. Historical Background. used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

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russenorsk

Russenorsk

Cari McLean

historical background
Historical Background
  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg

historical background1
Historical Background
  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain
  • contact limited to summer months

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg

historical background2
Historical Background
  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain
  • contact limited to summer months
  • started in late 1700’s

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg

historical background3
Historical Background
  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain
  • contact limited to summer months
  • started in late 1700’s
  • degradation started around 1847

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg

historical background4
Historical Background
  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain
  • contact limited to summer months
  • started in late 1700’s
  • degradation started around 1847
  • definitive end in 1917

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg

sociolinguistic background
Sociolinguistic Background
  • adstrates
    • Russian
    • Norwegian

http://www.norskfolkemuseum.no/en/Stories/Set-3/The-fisherman/

sociolinguistic background1
Sociolinguistic Background
  • adstrates
    • Russian
    • Norwegian
  • lexical contributors
    • English
    • Dutch
    • Low German
    • Swedish
    • Finnish
    • French
    • Sami

http://www.norskfolkemuseum.no/en/Stories/Set-3/The-fisherman/

slide9

Trade Cities

  • Norway
    • Lofoten Islands
    • Tromsø
    • Hammerfest
    • Vardø

http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Scandinavia.htm

slide10

Trade Cities

  • Norway
    • Lofoten Islands
    • Tromsø
    • Hammerfest
    • Vardø
  • Russia
    • Kola Peninsula

http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Scandinavia.htm

phonology fonologi
Phonology фонология Fonologi
  • Norwegians and Russians did not change the

phonology of their L1 in using Russenorsk

http://members.tripod.com/Lake_Lillian/lofotfsk.jpg

phonology fonologi1
Phonology фонологияFonologi
  • Norwegians and Russians did not change the

phonology of their L1 in using Russenorsk

  • consonant clusters not found in both languages were

simplified or avoided

http://members.tripod.com/Lake_Lillian/lofotfsk.jpg

lexicon ordbok
Lexicon лексиконOrdbok
  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

lexicon

Russia

Norway

http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/sepia/images/noor.jpg

http://rasputin.clueinc.net/auto_exh/RPCCollective?id=286670&from=1

lexicon ordbok1
Lexicon лексикон Ordbok
  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

lexicon

  • words from other languages can be seen as well
    • Ex: Sami word for ‘and’ is ‘ja’

http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/sepia/images/noor.jpg

http://rasputin.clueinc.net/auto_exh/RPCCollective?id=286670&from=1

lexicon ordbok2
Lexicon лексикон Ordbok
  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

lexicon

  • words from other languages can be seen as well
    • Ex: Sami word for ‘and’ is ‘ja’
  • there can be variability in the lexicon between speakers,

but some words are invariable

    • Norwegian ‘fiske’ always used

Russian ‘rybe’ never used

    • Russian pronouns ‘moja’ 1 SG and ‘tvoja’ 2 SG

Norwegian ‘jeg’ or ‘du’ rarely used

lexicon ordbok3
Lexicon лексикон Ordbok
  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

lexicon

  • words from other languages can be seen as well
    • Ex: Sami word for ‘and’ is ‘ja’
  • there can be variability in the lexicon between speakers,

but some words are invariable

    • Norwegian ‘fiske’ always used

Russian ‘rybe’ never used

    • Russian pronouns ‘moja’ 1 SG and ‘tvoja’ 2 SG

Norwegian ‘jeg’ or ‘du’ rarely used

morphology morfologi
Morphology морфология Morfologi
  • ‘-om’ marks verbs, possibly of Russian origin
  • ‘-a’ marks nouns

RN:tvojakopomoreka?

you buy nut

You buy nuts?

morphology morfologi1
Morphology морфологияMorfologi
  • ‘-om’ marks verbs, probably of Russian origin
  • ‘-a’ marks nouns

RN:tvojakopomoreka?

you buy nut

You buy nuts?

  • ‘ja’ and ‘jes’ used as coordinating conjunctions
morphology morfologi2
Morphology морфология Morfologi
  • ‘-om’ marks verbs, probably of Russian origin
  • ‘-a’ marks nouns

RN:tvojakopomoreka?

you buy nut

You buy nuts?

  • ‘ja’ and ‘jes’ used as coordinating conjunctions
  • ‘-mann’ designated nationality, ethnicity, or

occupation in Norgwegian and Russenorsk

Ex: russmann Russian

burmann Norwegian/fisherman

kukmann merchant

syntax syntaks
Syntax синтаксисSyntaks
  • canonical word order is SVO

RN: mojakopomfiska

I buy fish

I buy fish.

syntax syntaks1
Syntax синтаксис Syntaks
  • canonical word order is SVO

RN: mojakopomfiska

I buy fish

I buy fish.

  • SOV word order if phrase contains an adverb

RN:moja tri vekkelstannom

I three week stand

I stayed three weeks.

slide26

negator (Norsk ‘ikke’ or Russian ‘njet’) is restricted to

second position, a rule not found in Norsk or Russian

RN: på den dag ikkerussefolkrobotom

onthat daynotRussianswork

On that day, Russians don’t work.

slide27

negator (Norsk ‘ikke’ or Russian ‘njet’) is restricted to

second position, a rule not found in Norsk or Russian

RN: på den dag ikkerussefolkrobotom

onthat daynotRussianswork

On that day, Russians don’t work.

  • lack of grammatical temporal markers, so adverbials

used

RN: kanskemorradagmerapris

maybe tomorrowmoreprice

Maybe the price will be higher tomorrow/later.

slide28

‘værsgo’ marks imperative and is placed phrase initial

RN: værsgojupåmojaskibvaskom

please youonmyshipwash

Clean my ship.

slide29

‘værsgo’ marks imperative and is placed phrase initial

RN: værsgojupåmojaskibvaskom

please youonmyshipwash

Clean my ship.

  • ‘kanske’ marks epistemic modality or futurity and is

placed phrase initially

RN: kanskelitatjaidrikkom?

maybesome teadrink

Do you want to drink some tea?

slide30

some words lost their original meaning and were used

to close a locative copula in certain phrases, similar to

use of ‘ste’ in HPE

HPE: hi stemaui

He is in Maui temporarily.

RN: mojapåstovapåKristussprekstannom

I on house on Christ speak stay

I was in church.

slide31

Kotsinas makes the argument that the generalized

‘komme’ comes from Immigrant Swedish (IS)

RN: værsågo, burmann, påskibkomm

please fisherman on ship come

Come aboard, fisherman.

RN: burmankomfiska

fishermancome fish

Give me the fish.

RN: nokkalitepjankom

a little drunk came

I got a bit drunk.

t he p problem
The \'på\' Problem
  • Russenorsk has only one preposition, ‘på’ and is

generalized

    • Norwegian is ‘på’
    • Russian is ‘po’

RN: mojakrankpåmaga

I sick on stomach

I have a stomach-ache.

RN: japå madam Klerck tri dagaligge ne

I on Madame Klerck three days lie down

I stayed at Madame Klerck’s estate for three days.

p cont
på cont…
  • på can also used to mark an indirect object and possession
  • direct objects may or may not be marked with ‘på’

RN: mojapaajupresentombaanbaan

I on you give candy

I will give you candy.

RN: mera better påmoja

more better on me

It is better for me.

RN: påtvojakona?

on you wife

Do you have a wife?

p cont1
på cont…
  • preverbal ‘på’ is inconsistent and there is not an

agreed upon explanation; maybe can be explained by

Russian influence

RN: davajpaaslipom

Russian: Davajpospim.

Let us sleep.

russenorsk as a pidgin
Russenorsk as a Pidgin
  • no native speakers

http://pro.corbis.com

russenorsk as a pidgin1
Russenorsk as a Pidgin
  • no native speakers
  • function words rarely occur

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com

russenorsk as a pidgin2
Russenorsk as a Pidgin
  • no native speakers
  • function words rarely occur
  • no copula

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com

russenorsk as a pidgin3
Russenorsk as a Pidgin
  • no native speakers
  • function words rarely occur
  • no copula
  • temporal adverbs used

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com

russenorsk as a pidgin4
Russenorsk as a Pidgin
  • no native speakers
  • function words rarely occur
  • no copula
  • temporal adverbs used
  • simplified phonology

http://pro.corbis.com

http://www.ascp.ru/en_htm/3.htm

russenorsk as a pidgin5
Russenorsk as a Pidgin
  • no native speakers
  • function words rarely occur
  • no copula
  • temporal adverbs used
  • simplified phonology
  • derivational morphology

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com

bibliography
Bibliography

Arends, Jacques, Pieter Muysken, and Norval Smith. Pidgins and Creoles: an Introduction. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1995.

Haugen, Einar I. Beginning Norwegian: A Grammar and Reader. New York: Appleton Century Crofts, Inc, 1937.

Jahr, Ernst Håkon, and IngvildBroch. “On the Pidgin Status of Russenorsk.” Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monograph, no. 88 (1996): 107-122.

Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt. “Aspect Marking and Grammaticalization in Russenorsk Compared with Immigrant Swedish.” Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monograph, no. 88 (1996): 123-154.

Lunden, Siri Sverdrup. Russenorsk: Revisited. Olso: Universiteteti Oslo, 1978.

Parkvall, Mikael. “Language Contact in the Arctic: Reviews.” Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, no. 15 (2000): 189-198.

Press, Ian. A History of the Russian Language and its Speakers. LincomEuropa, 2007.

Pul’kina, I.M. A Short Russian Reference Grammar. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964.

Pul’kina, I.M., and E.B. Zakhava-Nekrasova. Russian for English Speaking Students. London: Pergamon Printing and Art Services LTD., 1961.

Schimizzi, J. Synonymy Among Russian Primary Prepositions. Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms, 1974.

pictures and s o und clips
Pictures and Sound Clips

Hungerman Thanksgiving. Advanced Russian I. iTunes Podcast (downloaded Feb. 7, 2009).

“The Fisherman.” NorskFolkemuseum. http://www.norskfolkemuseum.no/en/Stories/Set-3/The-fisherman/ (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)

“History.” JSC Arkhangelsk Sea Commercial Port. http://www.ascp.ru/en_htm/3.htm (accessed Feb. 8, 2009).

“Norwegian Phonology.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_phonology (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

 “Russian Phonology.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_phonology (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

“Useful Russian Phrases.” Omniglot: Writing Systems and Languages of the World. http://www.omniglot.com/language/phrases/russian.php (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

Altapedia Online. http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Scandinavia.htm (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

Norsk. iTunes Podcast (downloaded Feb. 7, 2009).

http://flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

http://members.tripod.com/Lake_Lillian/lofotfsk.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

 http://pro.corbis.com (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

 http://rasputin.clueinc.net/auto_exh/RPCCollective?id=286670&from=1 (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)

 http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/sepia/images/noor.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)

http://www.lofoten-info.no/Bilder/aa-old.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)