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Russenorsk. Cari McLean. Historical Background. used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain. flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg. Historical Background. used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

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Russenorsk

Russenorsk

Cari McLean


Historical background

Historical Background

  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg


Historical background1

Historical Background

  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

  • contact limited to summer months

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg


Historical background2

Historical Background

  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

  • contact limited to summer months

  • started in late 1700’s

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg


Historical background3

Historical Background

  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

  • contact limited to summer months

  • started in late 1700’s

  • degradation started around 1847

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg


Historical background4

Historical Background

  • used for trade and barter of Norwegian fish for Russian flour and grain

  • contact limited to summer months

  • started in late 1700’s

  • degradation started around 1847

  • definitive end in 1917

flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg


Sociolinguistic background

Sociolinguistic Background

  • adstrates

    • Russian

    • Norwegian

http://www.norskfolkemuseum.no/en/Stories/Set-3/The-fisherman/


Sociolinguistic background1

Sociolinguistic Background

  • adstrates

    • Russian

    • Norwegian

  • lexical contributors

    • English

    • Dutch

    • Low German

    • Swedish

    • Finnish

    • French

    • Sami

http://www.norskfolkemuseum.no/en/Stories/Set-3/The-fisherman/


Russenorsk

  • Trade Cities

  • Norway

    • Lofoten Islands

    • Tromsø

    • Hammerfest

    • Vardø

http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Scandinavia.htm


Russenorsk

  • Trade Cities

  • Norway

    • Lofoten Islands

    • Tromsø

    • Hammerfest

    • Vardø

  • Russia

    • Kola Peninsula

http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Scandinavia.htm


Phonology fonologi

Phonology фонология Fonologi

  • Norwegians and Russians did not change the

    phonology of their L1 in using Russenorsk

http://members.tripod.com/Lake_Lillian/lofotfsk.jpg


Phonology fonologi1

Phonology фонологияFonologi

  • Norwegians and Russians did not change the

    phonology of their L1 in using Russenorsk

  • consonant clusters not found in both languages were

    simplified or avoided

http://members.tripod.com/Lake_Lillian/lofotfsk.jpg


Lexicon ordbok

Lexicon лексиконOrdbok

  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

    lexicon

Russia

Norway

http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/sepia/images/noor.jpg

http://rasputin.clueinc.net/auto_exh/RPCCollective?id=286670&from=1


Lexicon ordbok1

Lexicon лексикон Ordbok

  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

    lexicon

  • words from other languages can be seen as well

    • Ex: Sami word for ‘and’ is ‘ja’

http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/sepia/images/noor.jpg

http://rasputin.clueinc.net/auto_exh/RPCCollective?id=286670&from=1


Lexicon ordbok2

Lexicon лексикон Ordbok

  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

    lexicon

  • words from other languages can be seen as well

    • Ex: Sami word for ‘and’ is ‘ja’

  • there can be variability in the lexicon between speakers,

    but some words are invariable

    • Norwegian ‘fiske’ always used

      Russian ‘rybe’ never used

    • Russian pronouns ‘moja’ 1 SG and ‘tvoja’ 2 SG

      Norwegian ‘jeg’ or ‘du’ rarely used


Lexicon ordbok3

Lexicon лексикон Ordbok

  • roughly, Russian and Norwegian contribute equally in

    lexicon

  • words from other languages can be seen as well

    • Ex: Sami word for ‘and’ is ‘ja’

  • there can be variability in the lexicon between speakers,

    but some words are invariable

    • Norwegian ‘fiske’ always used

      Russian ‘rybe’ never used

    • Russian pronouns ‘moja’ 1 SG and ‘tvoja’ 2 SG

      Norwegian ‘jeg’ or ‘du’ rarely used


Morphology morfologi

Morphology морфология Morfologi

  • ‘-om’ marks verbs, possibly of Russian origin

  • ‘-a’ marks nouns

    RN:tvojakopomoreka?

    youbuynut

    You buy nuts?


Morphology morfologi1

Morphology морфологияMorfologi

  • ‘-om’ marks verbs, probably of Russian origin

  • ‘-a’ marks nouns

    RN:tvojakopomoreka?

    you buy nut

    You buy nuts?

  • ‘ja’ and ‘jes’ used as coordinating conjunctions


Morphology morfologi2

Morphology морфология Morfologi

  • ‘-om’ marks verbs, probably of Russian origin

  • ‘-a’ marks nouns

    RN:tvojakopomoreka?

    you buynut

    You buy nuts?

  • ‘ja’ and ‘jes’ used as coordinating conjunctions

  • ‘-mann’ designated nationality, ethnicity, or

    occupation in Norgwegian and Russenorsk

    Ex:russmannRussian

    burmannNorwegian/fisherman

    kukmannmerchant


Syntax syntaks

Syntax синтаксисSyntaks

  • canonical word order is SVO

    RN:mojakopomfiska

    Ibuyfish

    I buy fish.


Syntax syntaks1

Syntax синтаксис Syntaks

  • canonical word order is SVO

    RN:mojakopomfiska

    Ibuyfish

    I buy fish.

  • SOV word order if phrase contains an adverb

    RN:mojatrivekkelstannom

    Ithreeweekstand

    I stayed three weeks.


Russenorsk

  • negator (Norsk ‘ikke’ or Russian ‘njet’) is restricted to

    second position, a rule not found in Norsk or Russian

    RN:pådendagikkerussefolkrobotom

    onthat daynotRussianswork

    On that day, Russians don’t work.


Russenorsk

  • negator (Norsk ‘ikke’ or Russian ‘njet’) is restricted to

    second position, a rule not found in Norsk or Russian

    RN:pådendagikkerussefolkrobotom

    onthat daynotRussianswork

    On that day, Russians don’t work.

  • lack of grammatical temporal markers, so adverbials

    used

    RN:kanskemorradagmerapris

    maybe tomorrowmoreprice

    Maybe the price will be higher tomorrow/later.


Russenorsk

  • ‘værsgo’ marks imperative and is placed phrase initial

    RN:værsgojupåmojaskibvaskom

    please youonmyshipwash

    Clean my ship.


Russenorsk

  • ‘værsgo’ marks imperative and is placed phrase initial

    RN:værsgojupåmojaskibvaskom

    please youonmyshipwash

    Clean my ship.

  • ‘kanske’ marks epistemic modality or futurity and is

    placed phrase initially

    RN:kanskelitatjaidrikkom?

    maybesometeadrink

    Do you want to drink some tea?


Russenorsk

  • some words lost their original meaning and were used

    to close a locative copula in certain phrases, similar to

    use of ‘ste’ in HPE

    HPE:hi stemaui

    He is in Maui temporarily.

    RN:mojapåstovapåKristussprekstannom

    I on house on Christ speak stay

    I was in church.


Russenorsk

  • Kotsinas makes the argument that the generalized

    ‘komme’ comes from Immigrant Swedish (IS)

    RN:værsågo,burmann,påskibkomm

    pleasefishermanonshipcome

    Come aboard, fisherman.

    RN:burmankomfiska

    fishermancome fish

    Give me the fish.

    RN:nokkalitepjankom

    alittledrunkcame

    I got a bit drunk.


T he p problem

The 'på' Problem

  • Russenorsk has only one preposition, ‘på’ and is

    generalized

    • Norwegian is ‘på’

    • Russian is ‘po’

      RN:mojakrankpåmaga

      I sickonstomach

      I have a stomach-ache.

      RN: japå madam Klerck tri dagaligge ne

      I on Madame Klerck three days lie down

      I stayed at Madame Klerck’s estate for three days.


P cont

på cont…

  • på can also used to mark an indirect object and possession

  • direct objects may or may not be marked with ‘på’

    RN:mojapaajupresentombaanbaan

    Ionyougivecandy

    I will give you candy.

    RN:merabetterpåmoja

    morebetteronme

    It is better for me.

    RN:påtvojakona?

    onyouwife

    Do you have a wife?


P cont1

på cont…

  • preverbal ‘på’ is inconsistent and there is not an

    agreed upon explanation; maybe can be explained by

    Russian influence

    RN:davajpaaslipom

    Russian:Davajpospim.

    Let us sleep.


Russenorsk as a pidgin

Russenorsk as a Pidgin

  • no native speakers

http://pro.corbis.com


Russenorsk as a pidgin1

Russenorsk as a Pidgin

  • no native speakers

  • function words rarely occur

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com


Russenorsk as a pidgin2

Russenorsk as a Pidgin

  • no native speakers

  • function words rarely occur

  • no copula

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com


Russenorsk as a pidgin3

Russenorsk as a Pidgin

  • no native speakers

  • function words rarely occur

  • no copula

  • temporal adverbs used

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com


Russenorsk as a pidgin4

Russenorsk as a Pidgin

  • no native speakers

  • function words rarely occur

  • no copula

  • temporal adverbs used

  • simplified phonology

http://pro.corbis.com

http://www.ascp.ru/en_htm/3.htm


Russenorsk as a pidgin5

Russenorsk as a Pidgin

  • no native speakers

  • function words rarely occur

  • no copula

  • temporal adverbs used

  • simplified phonology

  • derivational morphology

http://pro.corbis.com

http://pro.corbis.com


Bibliography

Bibliography

Arends, Jacques, Pieter Muysken, and Norval Smith. Pidgins and Creoles: an Introduction. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1995.

Haugen, Einar I. Beginning Norwegian: A Grammar and Reader. New York: Appleton Century Crofts, Inc, 1937.

Jahr, Ernst Håkon, and IngvildBroch. “On the Pidgin Status of Russenorsk.” Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monograph, no. 88 (1996): 107-122.

Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt. “Aspect Marking and Grammaticalization in Russenorsk Compared with Immigrant Swedish.” Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monograph, no. 88 (1996): 123-154.

Lunden, Siri Sverdrup. Russenorsk: Revisited. Olso: Universiteteti Oslo, 1978.

Parkvall, Mikael. “Language Contact in the Arctic: Reviews.” Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, no. 15 (2000): 189-198.

Press, Ian. A History of the Russian Language and its Speakers. LincomEuropa, 2007.

Pul’kina, I.M. A Short Russian Reference Grammar. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964.

Pul’kina, I.M., and E.B. Zakhava-Nekrasova. Russian for English Speaking Students. London: Pergamon Printing and Art Services LTD., 1961.

Schimizzi, J. Synonymy Among Russian Primary Prepositions. Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms, 1974.


Pictures and s o und clips

Pictures and Sound Clips

Hungerman Thanksgiving. Advanced Russian I. iTunes Podcast (downloaded Feb. 7, 2009).

“The Fisherman.” NorskFolkemuseum. http://www.norskfolkemuseum.no/en/Stories/Set-3/The-fisherman/ (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)

“History.” JSC Arkhangelsk Sea Commercial Port. http://www.ascp.ru/en_htm/3.htm (accessed Feb. 8, 2009).

“Norwegian Phonology.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_phonology (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

 “Russian Phonology.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_phonology (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

“Useful Russian Phrases.” Omniglot: Writing Systems and Languages of the World. http://www.omniglot.com/language/phrases/russian.php (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

Altapedia Online. http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Scandinavia.htm (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

Norsk. iTunes Podcast (downloaded Feb. 7, 2009).

http://flann4.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/fisherman.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

http://members.tripod.com/Lake_Lillian/lofotfsk.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

 http://pro.corbis.com (accessed Feb. 7, 2009).

 http://rasputin.clueinc.net/auto_exh/RPCCollective?id=286670&from=1 (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)

 http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/sepia/images/noor.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)

http://www.lofoten-info.no/Bilder/aa-old.jpg (accessed Feb. 7, 2009)


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