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Frederick Griffith - 1928. Griffith’s experiments showed that hereditary material can pass from one bacterial cell to another. . Griffith\'s experiment.

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frederick griffith 1928

Frederick Griffith - 1928

Griffith’s experiments showed that hereditary material can pass from one bacterial cell to another.

griffith s experiment
Griffith\'s experiment
  • In 1928 Griffith was studying a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae. He was trying to develop a vaccine against a virulent strain of the bacterium.
    • Virulent– disease causing
    • Vaccine– a substance that is prepared from killed or weakened microorganisms & introduced into the body to protect it from future infection by that microorganism.
griffith s experiment1
Griffith\'s experiment
  • S bacteria is virulent because it has a capsule. The capsule protects it from attacks by the human immune system. It is able to survive long enough in the human body to replicate and cause disease.
  • R bacteria is NOT virulent because it lacks a capsule. Without the capsule it is left defenseless against the human immune system. Therefore it is destroyed in the human body before it is able to cause disease.
griffith s experiment2
Griffith\'s experiment
  • Injected mouse with live R bacteria (w/o capsule).
    • DID NOT kill mice
  • Injected mouse with live S bacteria (w/ capsule).
    • Killed mice
  • Injected mouse with heat killed S bacteria.
    • DID NOT kill mice
  • Injected mouse with heat killed S bacteria mixed with live R bacteria.
    • Killed mice
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The R bacteria took up the DNA found in the heat killed S bacteria and became virulent!
  • The transfer of genetic material from one cell to another cell or from one organism to another organism is calledtransformation.
chargaff 1950
Chargaff - 1950
  • Discovered that Adenine / Thymine and Cytosine / Guanine occurred in equal percentages in DNA.
  • For Example: If you had 22 Adenine and 5 Cytosine then you would have 22 Thymine and 5 Guanine.
  • Led to base pairing discovery
chargaff 19501

Chargaff - 1950

Discovered that Adenine / Thymine and Cytosine / Guanine occurred in equal percentages in DNA.

For Example: If you had 22 Adenine and 5 Cytosine then you would have 22 Thymine and 5 Guanine.

Led to base pairing discovery

hershey chase 1952

Hershey & Chase -1952

Hershey and Chase confirmed that DNA, and not protein, is the hereditary material.

hershey chase experiment
Hershey & Chase experiment
  • In 1952, two researchers, Martha Chase and Alfred Hershey, set out to test whether DNA or protein was the hereditary material viruses transfer when viruses enter bacteria.
  • Bacteriophage - is a virus that infects bacteria.
hershey chase experiment1
Hershey & Chase experiment
  • Grew bacteriophage (with radioactive sulfur ) in dish of e.coli (sulfur is only found in proteins)
  • Grew bacteriophage (with radioactive phosphorous ) in dish of e.coli (phosphorous is only found in DNA)
  • They traced the radioactive elements that had entered the e.coli …to see which one was injected into the cell.
  • The DNA of the virus and not the proteins was what was in the e.coli causing it to produce more viral DNA.
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • Hershey and Chase confirmed that DNA, and not protein, is the hereditary material.
watson and crick 1953

Watson and Crick - 1953

Watson and Crick used the information gathered by others to determine one of the most important discoveries in human history – the Double Helix.

watson and crick wilkins franklin 1953
Watson and Crick (Wilkins / Franklin) - 1953
  • Until Hershey and Chase’s experiment, most people believed that protein was the hereditary material (because protein was involved in basically everything to do with cells and because it was believed DNA’s structure was too simple to encode the secret to life).
  • After the Hershey and Chase experiment in 1952 proved DNA was in fact the hereditary material, the race was on to discover it’s structure to gain a better understanding of it.
  • Watson and Crick discovered DNA shape (double helix) in 1953 using information gained from other scientists, mainly Wilkins / Franklin.
watson and crick continued
Watson and Crick – continued
  • Crick actually studied mostly proteins and Watson studied neither before 1952.
  • Watson and Crick went to lectures from other scientists concerning DNA and compiled information they gained from them.
  • Watson “borrowed” X-rays done by Wilkins / Franklin showing a vague picture DNA’s shape (you could tell that it was the same thickness all the way through).
  • Watson, Crick, and Wilkins received a Nobel prize from it while Franklin (who did most of the work) died from cancer due to her exposure to X-rays.
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