Rise of hitler
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Rise of Hitler. World War II: Hitler ’ s War?. Introduction. Problems in peacekeeping in the 1920s Aggressive expansion in the 1930s Winston Churchill though, called WWI “ Hitler ’ s War ” Had a master plan for dominating Europe Reunite German Empire and conquer Eastern Europe

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Rise of hitler

Rise of Hitler

World War II: Hitler’s War?


Introduction

Introduction

  • Problems in peacekeeping in the 1920s

  • Aggressive expansion in the 1930s

  • Winston Churchill though, called WWI “Hitler’s War”

    • Had a master plan for dominating Europe

      • Reunite German Empire and conquer Eastern Europe

      • War was inevitable

      • Turning point 1935: Germany rearmed


Origins of hitler

Origins of Hitler

  • Had fought in WWI, blinded by a gas attack

    • Heard of the German surrender while in the hospital

      • Catalyst for politics

  • Germany had almost realized domination of Eastern Europe

    • Lost when defeated on Western Front

  • Both Russia and Austro-Hungarian Empires have fallen

    • Germany not in that bad of a spot

    • Could not accept losses, reparations


Ambitions

Ambitions

  • Foreign policy shaped by these factors

  • 1919, Hitler became a member of the German Workers’ Party

    • Renamed National Socialist German Workers’ Party in 1920

    • Hitler its leader by 1921

  • Key objectives

    • Union of all Germans

    • End to Treaty of Versailles

    • Strong state

    • National army

    • Exclusion of Jews


Attempts at power

Attempts at Power

  • 1923, Nazis attempt to seize power from Weimar Republic

    • Munich Beer Hall Putsch

    • Failed, Hitler sent to prison for nine months

      • Wrote Mein Kampf

        • Autobiography and political philosophy

        • Racist and authoritarian theories

        • Racial purity and Lebensraum


Transformation of nazi party

Transformation of Nazi Party

  • Did not do well in German elections of 1928

  • Hitler wrote a ‘Secret Book’ in this year

    • Developed foreign policy from Mein Kampf

    • Stated there would be a struggle between US and German/British Empires

    • Wrote about admiration for Mussolini and anger towards Chancellor Gustav Stresemann, who sought to return Germany to pre-1914 borders

      • Thought it was far too limited, wanted the USSR


Rise to power

Rise to Power

  • Failures of the League

  • Economic crisis particularly influential on Weimar Germany

    • Mass unemployment led to Nazi Party’s success at the polls

    • Hitler came to power legally

    • Conservatives like President General von Hindenburg thought he could be controlled

    • Became Chancellor in January 1933


Support for hitler

Support for Hitler

  • Aggressive foreign policy objectives are what got him elected

    • Would have to attack Versailles and those who signed it

    • People believed he would restore prestige

    • Had support of other right-wing groups


Consolidation of power

Consolidation of Power

  • 1933-34 consolidated control

  • Gained the control of the army and industrialists who sought rearmament

  • Regime was totalitarian, rights of citizens subordinate

    • Geared domestic policy to needs of expansionist foreign policy

    • Military conscription and rearmament helped economy


Hitler and short term causes of wwii

Hitler and Short-Term Causes of WWII


Revising the treaty of versailles

Revising the Treaty of Versailles

  • 1933-35 Hitler tries to revise Treaty of Versailles

  • Attacked reparations, had been suspended, announced they would not be resumed

    • Most had already accepted this

  • Decision to rearm caused the real problem

    • Withdrawal from Disarmament Conference 1933

    • Increased military spending 34-35 by five times

  • Withdrew from League in 33, rest of the world economically down


Subsequent steps

Subsequent Steps

  • Non-Aggression Pact with Poland in 1934

    • Secured his eastern border for now

      • Undermined Franco-Polish Alliance

  • Sought to unify Austria with Germany

    • Pro-Nazi coup in Austria unsuccessful though

  • Re-united Saar with Germany

  • 1935, announced compulsory military service, armaments program, declared existence of 500,000 army and air force


European response

European Response

  • Britain, France, Italy created Stresa Front

    • Did not say how they would stop Hitler

    • Meaningless in a month when Britain and Germany signed a Naval Agreement

      • Allowed for a larger German navy, Britain’s individual attempt at limiting him

  • Hitler intimidating Europe

  • League cooked after Abyssinia Crisis in 1935


German remilitarization

German Remilitarization

  • 1936 turned his attention to western border

  • Versailles had made the Rhineland a demilitarized zone

    • Key for France

  • Hitler’s army and confidence growing

  • Sent 10,000 troops and 23,000 armed police into the Rhineland in March 1936

    • No response from British or France

    • Division in France, British against resistance


Hitler in spanish civil war

Hitler in Spanish Civil War

  • Italy and Germany grew closer as a result of Abyssinian Crisis

  • Together supported Franco

  • Nevermore than 10,000 Germans, 70,000 Italians

  • Wanted to test out Germany’s improved forces

  • Responsible for Guernica in 1937


Building support

Building Support

  • Rome-Berlin Axis created in late 1936

  • Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan same time

  • Italy joined the pact in 1937

  • Thought they could use Japan to counter Britain and Russia in Asia

    • Would meet less resistance to his expansionist aims in Europe


Hossbach memorandum

Hossbach Memorandum

  • August 1936 Hitler launched Four Year Plan to prepare German economy for war

  • 1937, called a meeting in the Reich

    • Key military leaders present

    • Opened by saying how important the discussion was, said it was essentially his will

    • Key aim was preserve racial community

    • Set a time-table, pre-1943

    • Considered threats from France and seizing territory

    • Focused on concrete armament

    • Three people who opposed him here all were replaced


Anschluss

Anschluss

  • March 1938, Hitler sent troops into Austria

    • Encountered no military resistance

    • Britain said it had been wrong to force a separation between Germany and Austria, lol

    • Austrian Chancellor had called for a popular vote

    • 99.75% for Hitler

    • Now had Austrian forces, gold and iron


Takeover of czechoslovakia

Takeover of Czechoslovakia

  • Next action against the Sudetenland

  • Czech leader appealed for help from Britain and France

  • France agreed, Britain agreed, USSR will

  • May 1938, Hitler said he would fight for it

  • Czechs had strong army and guarantees of support


Munich conference

Munich Conference

  • British PM Chambelain met with Hitler Sept. 1938

  • Originally compromised, asked for parts of Czech that wanted in

  • Second meeting Hitler increased his demands, wanted all Sudetenland

  • Britain mobilized its nacy

  • Final meeting, Britain, France, Italy give Hitler an ultimatum, gave him the land he wanted but nothing more

    • Did not consult with Czechs or Soviets

  • Renewed arms race

  • March 1939, Hitler occupied rest of Czech


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