Four Noble Truths (Reviewed). Dukkha (lack of satisfaction) is a fundamenal and pervasive pattern in human experience. 2. Tanha (craving) for identity and permanence is the cause of dukkha . 3. Cessation of craving for identity and permanence dissolves dukkha .
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2. Tanha (craving) for identity and permanence is the cause of dukkha.
3. Cessation of craving for identity and permanence dissolves dukkha.
4. There is a path to cessation in eight coordinated practices.
Exploring the Eightfold Path:The Path to Cessation of Dukkha
Clear Seeing and Intentional Living
The Eightfold Path: Preliminaries
Not one of the eight practices, but the context in which the Buddha believed they could best be cultivated. Just as anxieties are absorbed by the company we keep, so also is freedom from anxiety. We absorb psychological toxicity and health equally from our immediate environment.
1. The Right View: Know the four noble truths. Not mere “beliefs” but an experiential knowing of dukkha, the conditions of its arising, and the conditions of its cessation.
2. The Right Intention: “Intention of renunciation, intention of non-ill will, intention of harmlessness.”
The Eightfold Path: Sila (Morality)
3. The Right Speech: “Abstinence from false speech, abstinence from malicious speech, abstinence from harsh speech, abstinence from idle chatter.”
4. The Right Action/Conduct: “Abstinence from the destruction of life, abstinence from taking what is not given, abstinence from sexual misconduct.”
Buddhist Five Precepts
Do not kill.
Do not steal.
Do not lie.
Do not be unchaste.
Do not take intoxicants.
The Eightfold Path: Sila (Morality)
5. The Right Livelihood: Avoid occupations that harm other living beings.
The import of 3, 4, and 5 is to examine:
the effects of one’s activity on oneself
the motivation behind the activity
Each person must determine this for herself, as only the individual can ultimately verify or confirm the truth about the rising and cessation of dukkha associated with one’s own personal sphere activity.
What activity is right/useful for cessation?
6.The Right Effort: Mentally striving for mastery over evil unwholesome thoughts.
Intentions, actions, and living are born from thought.
Striving is necessary, for it is difficult to uproot tendencies.
The Eightfold Path:
Bhavana (“Mental Cultivation”)
7.The Right Mindfulness: Lending attention to every state of body and mind (e.g., perceptions, thoughts, and feelings).
Seeing impermanence (anicca) of the bodily and mental
Seeing that tanha is the cause of dukkha
Seeing that there is no individual, separate self behind the body and mind
In this way, mindfulness facilitates non-attachment.
8.The Right Concentration: Penetrate deeper levels of consciousness through inward examination, passing from inner security and happiness to complete equanimity beyond all dualities.
The Buddha recommended a single object as the focus for developing right concentration, often one’s own breath or pattern of breathing (following the “in-breath” and “out-breath.”)
One might move from mindfulness to concentration or from concentration to mindfulness, but each aspect of bhavana (that is, 7 and 8) is mutually reinforce.
The Buddha’s more detailed teaching concerning meditation practice will be explored in the Satipatthana Sutta – “the Discourse on the Four Arousings of Mindfulness.”
The Eightfold path leads to the cultivation of six perfections:
(1) The body, including breathing.
(2) Feelings or bodily sensations
(3) States of the mind (e.g., calm, turbulent, confused, clear).
(4) Mind objects or thoughts.
Focus on breathing, body parts, composition of body, and notice impermanence in them all.
Focus on feelings or sensations that arise from different parts of the body, and notice whether they are pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral.
Focus on what arises and passes away in general states of mind or moods, whether the mind is clear, confused, turbulent, calm, worried, confident, etc.
Focus on five hindrances, five aggregates (body-mind) as subject to clinging and impermanence, and four noble truths.
What is seen?
Anatta (no self or lack of self-existence)
Dukkha (lack of satisfaction)
How are these seen?
With equanimity – choicelessly and non-reactively
What is the result?
Nibanna: the cessation of craving and lack of satisfaction.
“Those truths of which before I had only heard, now I dwell having experienced them directly within the body, and I observe them with penetrative insight.”
– Sariputta (Buddha’s disciple)