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Corporate Governance. By: 1. Kenneth A. Kim John R. Nofsinger And 2. A. C. Fernando. Accountants and Auditors. 7 th Lesson. Accountants and Auditors. Last lecture review We have discussed how financial position of a company can be examined through different ways.

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Corporate governance

CorporateGovernance

By: 1. Kenneth A. Kim

John R. Nofsinger

And

2. A. C. Fernando



Accountants and auditors1
Accountants and Auditors

Last lecture review

  • We have discussed how financial position of a company can be examined through different ways.

  • Accounting records are different for managers and public financial statement.

  • Reasons for the difference between financial accounting and managerial accounting are either to show the wrong financial position of the company or to use the company’s money by the management for their personal interests.

  • Normally, we face different problems that may occur in accounting.


Accountants and auditors2
Accountants and Auditors

  • Here come the role of an auditor to check their errors by the accountants.

  • There are different types of auditors

    • Independent auditor

    • Internal auditor

    • Government auditor

  • Big 4.


Accountants and auditors3
Accountants and Auditors

  • Lecture Outlines

    • The changing role of accountants-managing earnings i.e. accountants will act as a profit-centers

    • Through managing earning methods, accountants can release the pressure of managers as well as analysts.

    • Window dressing and smooth earnings are another technique used by accountants to show the favourable financial condition of the company.

    • Price manipulation is acceptable to some extend but it should not violate the law becoming fraudulent acts.


Accountants and auditors4
Accountants and Auditors

  • End of the story is that investors as well as stock holders will have to suffer with all these techniques used by accountants and management.

  • Single accounting firm should not allowed to conduct audit as well as consulting activities for a single firm

  • Main reason is the conflict of interest between auditors and consultants.


  • Accountants and auditors5
    Accountants and Auditors

    The Changing role of Accounting – Managing

    Earnings

    • Accountants role has been changed for the last two decades i.e.

      • Instead of simply providing information to insiders and outsiders, accountants act as a profit- centers.

      • Accounting departments are asked to increase profits through implication of accounting methods.

      • Different methods often lead to different levels of reportable profits.


    Accountants and auditors6
    Accountants and Auditors

    • This process of reporting of profit is called managing earnings.

    • E.g. 1. Pressure on accountants from managers to meet internal targets.

      • Managers wants accountants to show increase revenue and decrease cost because it may lead to a raise or a bonus for the CEO and other managers.


    Accountants and auditors7
    Accountants and Auditors

    • 2. Pressure on accountants from Analysts to meet external targets.

      ( Company_____Investment Banks-Financial Analysts_____Investors)

      • Analysts make predictions about firms profitability measured by earning per share (EPS).

      • If firm fails to meet these expectations, then the share price will decline.

      • So, the pressure is on accountants to make any sort of arrangement which can be “window dressing”.


    Accountants and auditors8
    Accountants and Auditors

    • What is window dressing?

      • Window dressing is a set of actions or manipulations with financial or other information in financial documents (financial statements, reports, etc.) to make this information look more attractive to its users. Even though window dressing can occur at any time, it is commonly used at the end of a period e.g. normally banks managers ask their friends to deposit their money for a short period of time to have attractive financial position etc; etc.


    Accountants and auditors9
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Other examples of window dressing by companies may include advertising, selling, and marketing.  In these cases, window dressing occurs when positive characteristics of products or services are a little exaggerated to increase demand for them while negative characteristics are not mentioned or kept hidden.


    Accountants and auditors10
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Another example of variations in accounting method is called smooth income.

      • An erratic pace profit generated by business is being divided into number of years.

        • Give shareholders a sense reduced risk.

        • Can easily handle with the analysts predictions.

        • Good for managers to show consistent revenue on the board meeting.

        • Good to deal with the government regulations like taxation.

        • etc; etc.


    Accountants and auditors11
    Accountants and Auditors

    From Manipulation to Fraud

    • A question often asked is how much can companies manipulate accounting figures before they cross the line into fraud?

      • E.g. Selling goods/assets at high price to its own subsidiary, where as the book value is very low and so on.

      • Therefore, the firm book large capital gain and profits go up, which is not actual.


    Accountants and auditors12
    Accountants and Auditors

    • The subsidiary capitalizes the cost of the truck by reporting lower earning in each of the future years in which the truck cost is depreciated.

    • Accountants are under pressure from the management side;

      • To show maximum profit by any mean

      • To show less shortfalls

    • What about the investors or stock holders?


    Accountants and auditors13
    Accountants and Auditors

    • There is a difference between capital investment and operating expenses e.g. On June 25, 2002, WorldCom disclosed that roughly $3.8 billion had been improperly booked as capital investments instead of operating expenses.

      • Capital investment

        • Capital investment may also refer to a firm's acquisition of capital assets or fixed assets such as manufacturing plants and machinery 


    Accountants and auditors14
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Operating expenses

      • A category of expenditure that a business incurs as a result of performing its normal business operations.

  • There is a clear line between legal accounting manoeuvring and accounting fraud.

  • Accountants and auditors are responsible for this fraudulent act but one should not ignore the role of management in all this.


  • Accountants and auditors15
    Accountants and Auditors

    Auditors as Consultants

    • Business consulting firms typically advice firms on tactical issues, such as how to enter a new market and strategic issues, such as acquiring or spinning off other firms.

    • For example, McKinsey & Company

      • Advises more than half of the Fortune 500 firms

      • 7,700 consultants in 84 locations worldwide and generated $3.4 billion revenue

      • Representing more than 40 percent market share of the consulting business.


    Accountants and auditors16
    Accountants and Auditors

    • One potential problem for a firm’s shareholders occur when a consulting firm conducts auditing services for the company.

    • The income for conducting an audit is far lower than the fees earned for consulting.


    Accountants and auditors17
    Accountants and Auditors

    • It is intended to separate auditors and consultants, prohibit accounting firms from providing both auditing and consulting activities to the same company.

    • The conflict of interest of consultants and auditors are the main reason.


    Accountants and auditors18
    Accountants and Auditors

    • International Perspective

      • Compared to accounting systems used internationally, the system in the US is quite rigorous to protect shareholders rights.

      • In the recent study of 31 countries, the US was found the best legal environment to discourage earnings manipulations and smoothing.

      • Australia, Ireland, Canada, and the UK also have good investor protection and enforcement histories.


    Accountants and auditors19
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Summary

      • A & A play very important role in corporations.

      • Companies are legally bound to hire A & A to have crystal clear financial position of a company because its not their money.

      • Companies face two types of interactions as far as accounting practices are concerned. Accounting for management and for outside world.


    Accountants and auditors20
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Normally company keeps two types of records in the shape of Financial Accounting and Managerial accounting- which normally do not match.

  • A single company always must have single financial position, so how is it possible to have two different accounting records.

  • Different accounting records means the element of frauds in the company.


  • Accountants and auditors21
    Accountants and Auditors

    • We have discussed how financial position of a company can be examined through different ways.

    • Accounting records are different for managers and public financial statement.

    • Reasons for the difference between financial accounting and managerial accounting are either to show the wrong financial position of the company or to use the company’s money by the management for their personal interests.

    • Normally, we face different problems that may occur in accounting.


    Accountants and auditors22
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Here come the role of an auditor to check there errors by the accountants.

    • There are different types of auditors

      • Independent auditor

      • Internal auditor

      • Government auditor

    • Big 4

    • The changing role of accountants-managing earnings i.e. accountants will act as a profit-centers


    Accountants and auditors23
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Through managing earning methods, accountants can release the pressure of managers as well as analysts.

    • Window dressing and smooth earnings are another technique used by accountants to show the favourable financial condition of the company.

    • Price manipulation is acceptable to some extend but it should not violate the law becoming fraudulent acts.

    • End of the story is that investors as well as stock holders will have to suffer with all these techniques used by accountants and management.


    Accountants and auditors24
    Accountants and Auditors

    • Single accounting firm should not allowed to conduct audit as well as consulting activities for a single firm

    • Main reason is the conflict of interest between auditors and consultants.

      The End


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