ENERGY CONVERSION MME 9617a Eric Savory www.eng.uwo.ca/people/esavory/mme9617a.htm Lecture 1 - Introduction Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering University of Western Ontario. Today’s class will cover: ● Outline of the course and course project
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Lecture 1 - Introduction
Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering
University of Western Ontario
Today’s class will cover:
● Outline of the course and course project
● A brief history of energy sources and
●World population growth and energy
●Introduction to some present day
numbers and challenges
● To introduce the basic technical and economic
criteria for the design of efficient energy
conversion systems, including traditional as
well as alternative power systems
● To discuss strategies for increased energy
efficiency and more environmentally sound
● To assess design alternatives and selection
criteria, based on long-term economic viability
and overall energy management strategies
● Introduction to energy conversion
● Economic considerations in energy production ● Fuels
● Review of basic theory
● Thermal energy (e.g. heat exchangers)
● Mechanical energy (e.g. pumps, turbines)
● Heat pumps
● Solar power
● Nuclear power
● Fuel cells
● Wind and wave
The course grade will be based on term
Term research project report and presentation (70%)
The Norfolk Broads
East Anglia, England
By the 12th century, much of East Norfolk had been cleared of its woodland for fuel and building materials
The first written evidence of peat digging for fuel in the Broads also dates from this time
Between the 12th and 14th centuries peat digging (or turf cutting) was a major industry
Peat diggings were abandoned by the 14th century because they kept filling with water. They flooded, and this man-made landscape became a wetland, rich in wildlife.
Now it is a major tourist and vacation area ….
A brief history of energy sources and energy usage
It all started with wood and peat ……
Those are the main energy sources but what are they used for ?
Energy Uses have changed …
Energy consumption in the USA (1775 – 1999)
World population growth
and energy demand
World population (1,000s)
Likely to peak at 10 - 16 bn
Science, 162, 1243-1248
“The Population Bomb”
100 1,000 10,000 100,000
Annual income per capita $ US
* GDP – Gross Domestic Product
* British Thermal Unit - defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Melting a pound of ice at 32 °F requires 143 BTU.
* Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
BP Statistical Review of World Energy (2000)
Edmonds J, Energy Policy
23, 4 – 5 (1995)
(1 quad = 1015 Btu)
Find alternatives to oil
Solar energy etc
Transport energy as energy, not as mass
Nanotechnology local energy storage (e.g. 100 kW)
High voltage long distance transmission (100s GW rather than 1GW)
TOP 10 GLOBAL CONCERNS
Total primary power required
For IPCC BAU scenario
M I Hoffert et al,
881 – 4 (1998)
WRE = Wigley,
ppmv of CO2.
Pre - industrial
level is 350
US energy consumption per year:3.5 TW
Worldwide energy consumption per year:15 TW
Renewable energy technologies have high sustainability index scores
Costs relative to fossil fuels remain high
Estimating resource bases is highly uncertain –
(i) for mineral-based resources like oil, gas, and coal – dependence on technology and has limited data.
(ii) for renewables land-use and capture efficiency are critical
Courtesy of MIT website
Definitions of energy and the economic considerations in energy production
Details of the Individual Term Project
Report: 50% of course grade
Presentation: 20% of course grade
To improve your knowledge of a specific area of energy conversion analysis by providing an individual project report concerning a critical appraisal of an energy conversion process (or series of linked processes) in which you will examine current practice including example calculations, the process efficiencies and alternative strategies for achieving the same practical outcome, against a background of the need to reduce local and global carbon emissions.
To present the project to the class, including answering questions from the audience.
To provide a final report.
Researching the literature
Then, within that sector choose a specific energy conversion process or linked processes.
You will then need to identify and obtain the key papers relating to your chosen topic as these will form the basis of your discussion. A minimum of 10 papers must be included in your discussion, at least 5 of which should be journal papers. It is useful if you can identify a recent review paper as this will help you find the key publications.
Next weeks class: Engineering librarian will give a talk on research strategies for this course
Before Wednesday 24th September – Choose topic and e-mail me title and brief outline of proposed area of research
Before the next class - I will e-mail you with comments concerning your proposal so you can start detailed work
Wednesday 26th November - Paper copy of your final report due (11 weeks from today!)
5 pm on Tuesday 18th November – Powerpoint presentation file to be e-mailed or given to me
19th and 26th November – Presentations (15 minutes) in class time slot to be attended by all students registered on the course