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The Quick Story. 1 Billion Years of PNW Geology in 10 (text) Slides or Less. Important Processes. Tectonics Volcanism Erosion/Deposition Glaciation Discrete Disturbances. PNW Timeline A. 4.5 BYA Earth Formed ~ 4.4 – 4. 2 BY Oldest Rocks (U in Zircon degradation to lead Pb)

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The Quick Story

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The quick story

The Quick Story

1 Billion Years of PNW Geology in 10 (text) Slides or Less


Important processes

Important Processes

  • Tectonics

  • Volcanism

  • Erosion/Deposition

  • Glaciation

  • Discrete Disturbances


Pnw timeline a

PNW Timeline A

  • 4.5 BYA Earth Formed

  • ~ 4.4 – 4. 2 BY Oldest Rocks (U in Zircon degradation to lead Pb)

  • 2.7 BYA basement Rocks in MT, ID

  • 1.5 BYA Purcell Belt Basin

  • ~44o MYA Pangaea Starts to Assemble (Silurian Epoch of Paleozoic Era)

    • Coastline ~ Idaho border. 30,000 feet of marine sediment accumulates

    • ~ 400 mya Blue Mt. Terrane forming in tropical Pacific (limestone)(made of 5+ terranes)

    • Klamath Arc Collides, Antler Highlands (proto-Sierras)

    • Intermontane, insular terranes develop in S.W. Pacific

Metamorphosed to Become


Geologic time scale

Geologic Time Scale


Cenozoic era new life

Two periods of Old Version:

Quaternary Period 1.6 mya

Holocene

Pleistocene

Tertiary Period 65 mya

Pliocene

Paleocene or Miocene

Two periods of New Version:

Neogene Period 23 mya

Holocene Epoch ~15,000 to present

Pleistocene Epoch 1.8 mya

Pliocene Epoch 5.3 mya

Miocene Epoch 23 mya

Paleogene Period

Oligocene Epoch 33 mya

Eocene Epoch 55 mya

Paleocene Epoch 65 mya

Cenozoic Era (New Life)


Cenozoic era new life1

Two periods of Old Version:

Quaternary Period 1.6 mya

Holocene

Pleistocene

Tertiary Period 65 mya

Pliocene

Paleocene or Miocene

Two periods of New Version:

Neogene Period 23 mya

Holocene Epoch ~15,000 to present

Pleistocene Epoch 1.8 mya

Pliocene Epoch 5.3 mya

Miocene Epoch 23 mya

Paleogene Period

Oligocene Epoch 33 mya

Eocene Epoch 55 mya

Paleocene Epoch 65 mya

Cenozoic Era (New Life)


Pnw timeline b

PNW Timeline B

  • ~245 MYA Pangaea Assembled (Permian Epoch of Paleozoic Era)

    • Large, warm seas

    • Several (lost) sub/mini continents/islands in Pacific

  • Permian – Triassic Extinction Event ~251 mya

    • Larger extinction event than K-T

    • Impacts, Volcanism, Methane Hydrates from sea floor (?)

  • ~200 MYA Pangaea Starts to Break up (Triassic Epoch of Mesozoic Era)

    • Forms Laurasia (N) and Gondwanaland (S)

    • Marine Seas changing to smaller back arc basins with volcanic chains

  • ~ 140 mya Laurasia Breaks Up (Jurassic Epoch of Mesozoic Era)

    • Ocean rift starts to form Atlantic Ocean

    • N. America moves across Pacific and Farallon Plates (subduction)

    • Intermontane Superterrane Collides with N. America


The quick story

From Orr and Orr, 2005, p. 6


The quick story

From Orr and Orr, 2005, p. 2


The quick story

From Orr and Orr, 2005, p. 5


Pnw timeline c

PNW Timeline C

  • ~ 144 mya – 65 mya Cretaceous Epoch of Mesozoic Era

    • Batholith intrusions throughout PNW

    • N. Cascade Terrane Collides (started 500 mya)

    • Insular and Blue Mt. Terranes Collide

    • Idaho Batholith late Cretaceous

    • Large Seas cover PNW

  • BAM! Huge Meteor hits Earth, Extinction of Dinosaurs (K-T Extinction Event)

    • Location: Yucatan Peninsula (others? SL-9)

    • Deccan Traps alternative Hypothesis?

  • Farallon Plate subducts with less angle, faster


The quick story

Several km in Diameter; ~ hundreds of nuclear weapons

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Impact_event.jpg


The quick story

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Chicxulub_radar_topography.jpg


The quick story

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/K-T_boundary.jpg


Timeline d

Timeline D

  • ~58 mya Coast Range Mt. Volcanism (ocean)

  • Pacific Rim, Crescent, Siletz Terranes “arrive”

  • Farallon Plate subducts steeper, slower

  • ~40 mya W. Cascade Volcanism Begins (old Cascades)

  • ~ 36 mya Kula Plate completely subducted

  • Blue Mts. Rotate/arch upward

  • John Day Volcanism smothers fossils

  • Wet, Warm Tropical Environment changes to dry temperate

  • ~20 – 5 mya Coast Range (not BC) and Olympics uplift


Cenozoic era new life2

Cenozoic Era (New Life)

  • Two periods of New Version:

  • Neogene Period 23 mya

    • Holocene Epoch ~15,000 to present

    • Pleistocene Epoch 1.8 mya

    • Pliocene Epoch 5.3 mya

    • Miocene Epoch 23 mya

  • Paleogene Period

    • Oligocene Epoch 33 mya

    • Eocene Epoch 55 mya

    • Paleocene Epoch 65 mya


The quick story

From Alt and Hyndman, 1995, p. 171


Timeline e

Timeline E

  • ~17 -- 14 mya Flood Basalts in WA and OR (Steens Basalt)

  • 17 – 15 mya Basin and Range (fault-blocks from spreading)

  • ~13 mya Snake River Plain Hotspot (at Yellowstone now)

  • ~5.3 mya First High Cascades eruptions

  • Cascade Rainshadow “renewed”

    • Dry, cooler inland Climate  Continental Climate

    • Temperate Climate to west  Maritime Climate


The quick story

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:3-Devils-grade-Moses-Coulee-Cattle-Feed-Lot-PB110016.JPG


The quick story

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Horst_graben.jpg


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:HotspotsSRP.jpg


Timeline f

Timeline F

  • ~2 – 3 mya Puget Lowlands and Willamette valley forming – rift faulting?

  • Long dry spell

  • Yellowstone (2.2 mya and 640,000 ya) eruption

  • THEN Pleistocene 1.8 mya

    • 100,000 years ago first glaciation

    • Long series of glacial phases (colder – wetter/warmer – drier)

    • Lake Missoula (+/- 100s?)and Bonneville (1) floods

    • 10,000 years ago ice age ends

    • E. Snake River basalts

    • Mazama (5,677 (± 150) ya) eruption


The quick story

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Northern_icesheet_hg.png


The quick story

http://www.nwcreation.net/articles/missoulaflood.htm


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http://www.greaterthings.com

/News/daily/2005/09/06/

6600916_Bush_behind_Katrina/

Lake-Bonneville-and-Utah.jpg


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http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs092-02/


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http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/north_america/crater_lake.html


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:HotspotsSRP.jpg


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http://www.exodus2006.com/supervol.html


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Yellowstone_Caldera_map2.jpg


Puget sound

Puget Sound

  • At Glacial Maxima Seattle under up to 1000m of ice

  • Lakes formed at edges of glaciers (Russell, Nisqually, Bretz, many others)

  • Some drained into Chehalis River (underutilized drainage)

  • Water changed from fresh to brine/salt (extinction)

  • As Glaciers receded, glacial formations

    • Mima Mounds

    • Clays and Till

    • Morraines


The quick story

From Orr and Orr, 2005, p. 17


The quick story

From Orr and Orr, 2005, p. 17


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Puget_Sound_from_Space_Needle_High_Rex.jpg


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cascade_Range-related_plate_tectonics.svg


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cascade_eruptions_in_the_last_4000_years.png


Sources

Sources

  • Orr, W.N. and E.L. Orr. 2006. Geology of the Pacific Northwest. Waveland Press, Long Grove, IL.

  • Alt, D. and D.W. Hyndman. 1995. Northwest Exposures. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, MT.

  • Check out this website to reconstruct plate tectonic movements on your own: http://www.odsn.de/odsn/services/paleomap/paleomap.html

  • Check out KT Event: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous_extinction

  • Also look at QuickTime movie of Puget Sound Glaciation at http://exhibits.pacsci.org/puget_sound/graphics/ps_glaciationsm.mov


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