The Market Revolution, Manifest Destiny, Texas & the War with Mexico. This began when people began buying and selling goods instead of making them for themselves
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The U.S. economy had become more industrialized, farmers shifted from self sufficiency to specialization where they would raise only one or two crops to sell
2. The economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production and use them to earn profits
Entrepreneurs invested their own money in new industries. They risked losing their investment if the business failed but could gain huge profits if it was successful
3. An instant electronic communicator that could send messages along a metal wire very quickly over great distances
Samuel F.B. Morse
It allowed businessmen to transmit orders and relay up-to-date information on prices and sales. It helped keep railroads running on time and warned engineers of safety hazards
4. Steamboats (1807 - ), canals (1810’s-1860’s), & railroads (1840’s - )
Farms and factories were able to expand because they could ship their products/crops to additional markets further away to reach new customers
5. John L. O’Sullivan, the editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review
Americans began to believe that it was God’s will for the U.S. to expand to the Pacific Ocean to develop that land and spread democracy across the continent
6. Claim land for farming and land speculation
find new markets for manufactured goods and services
provide more living space for new immigrants
locate harbors that could be used to expand trade to China
seek employment and avoid creditors after the Panic of 1837
spread the virtues of democracy
Oregon – Independence Missouri – Portland Oregon
Hundreds of covered wagons filled with goods to trade traveled together for months at a time to prevent attacks from Native Americans. Travelers would often go several days without food & water. Fevers, diarrhea, & cholera plagued people on the trails, many of whom died along the way.
8. The U.S. and Great Britain were disputing territories on the border between the U.S. and Canada near Maine, Minnesota, and the entire Oregon Territory
Many Americans believed that the U.S. should control the Oregon Territory until the latitude of 54 degrees and 40 minutes. Many felt we should go to war with Great Britain if they did not agree to these terms as well.
1. Texas became increasingly populated by Americans who were resistant to Mexican laws that prohibited slavery, immigration, and put heavy taxes on American goods. When Santa Anna refused the Texans request for further self government Texas rebelled and declared war
After a 12 day siege of the Alamo, Mexican troops entered the fort and killed all 187 U.S. defenders, as many as 1,500 Mexican soldiers were killed. During this battle the Republic of Texas declared independence on Mar 2, 1836
2. The Mexicans lost many troops and a lot of $ during these two costly victories
The brutal defeats motivated the Texans to continue fighting and served as a motivation for revenge during the rest of the war
900 Texans surprised a group of Mexican soldiers, killed 630 in 15 minutes, captured Santa Anna which led to the independence of Texas
3. The Treaty of Velasco granted independence to Texas the fort and killed all 187 U.S. defenders, as many as 1,500 Mexican soldiers were killed. During this battle the Republic of Texas declared independence on Mar 2, 1836
The Republic of Texas or the Lone Star Republic, Sam Houston was the nation’s 1st President
4. Southerners saw the annexation of Texas as an opportunity to extend slavery into a new state, northerners felt Texas would give the slave states too much power in the Senate
Texas was annexed in 1845 because new President James K. Polk was elected who was a slave owner and firmly favored the annexation of Texas
5. Mexico felt that the U.S. had aided Texas in their war for independence simply to annex them once they had won the war
Polk felt that war was the only way to solve the boundary dispute with Mexico and he knew that victory could add California & New Mexico to the U.S.
6. Many southerners who at first opposed the war realized how slavery could be expanded through a victory in a war with Mexico and supported Polk’s call for war. Northerners were opposed to the war because they thought it was the President’s plan to expand slavery and ensure Southern dominance of the Union.
The issue of the war became more of a battle over slavery than whether or not to go to war
7. U.S. 13,000 men (2,000 in battle, 11,000 from diseases) for independence simply to annex them once they had won the war
Mexico 50,000 men
Rio Grande River became border between Texas & Mexico
The U.S. agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican Cession which included present day California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado & Wyoming
Mexicans were guaranteed freedom of religion, protection of property, bilingual elections, and open borders
8. James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter’s Mill in California in January of 1848. As word spread that gold was discovered in California thousands of men headed west to search for gold
Forty-niners were gold prospectors that flocked to California in 1849
The population of California skyrocketed and they called a Constitutional Convention to create a state constitution, and apply for statehood as a free state.