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TACROM INTRODUCTION Company Structure. Parent Company: C.A.T. GmbH. TACROM INTRODUCTION Company Presentation. June 2006-Tacrom Services was established in Romania Oct 2006-first frac campaign in Moinesti area (10 wells)

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Tacrom introduction company structure

TACROM INTRODUCTIONCompany Structure

Parent Company: C.A.T. GmbH


Tacrom introduction company presentation

TACROM INTRODUCTIONCompany Presentation

  • June 2006-Tacrom Services was established in Romania

  • Oct 2006-first frac campaign in Moinesti area (10 wells)

  • Since then we performed 160 fracs on-shore and off-shore of Romania, Azerbaijan and Bulgaria

  • March 2008-we started to provide coil tubing and nitrogen service (more than 100 jobs in Romania)

  • June 2008-gravel-pack service was provided (more than 45 jobs in Romania)


Tacrom introduction services provided

TACROM INTRODUCTIONServices Provided

  • Hydraulic Fracs

  • Acid Fracs

  • Frac-Packs

  • Acidizing

  • Gravel-Packs

  • Coil Tubing & Nitrogen Service


Tacrom introduction hydraulic fracs

TACROM INTRODUCTIONHydraulic Fracs

  • The objective of hydraulic fracturing is to increase well productivity by creating a highly conductive flow path some distance away from the well bore

  • Using this technology we can increase production rates as well as overall recoverable hydrocarbons.


Tacrom introduction hydraulic fracs1

TACROM INTRODUCTIONHydraulic Fracs


Tacrom introduction acid fracs

TACROM INTRODUCTIONAcid Fracs

  • Much of the theory of hydraulic (proppant) fracturing is applicable to acid fracturing especially regarding fracture initiation and propagation. Leak-off and fracture conductivity are however fundamentally different

  • Acids create enhanced productivity by dissolving acid-soluble rocks, such as carbonates. The acid etches (dissolves) the walls of the fracture. Alternatively, the acid leaks off into the formation (accelerated by wormhole formation)


Tacrom introduction acid fracs1

TACROM INTRODUCTIONAcid Fracs

  • The most common acid system is hydrochloric acid and this reacts effectively with above mentioned rocks


Tacrom introduction frac packs

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFrac-Packs

  • Frac-Packs are a combination of a hydraulic fracturing and a gravel pack

  • This type of treatment is suitable for medium permeability unconsolidated formations

  • Is reducing to 0 formation sand flow and is creating a hi-permeability path for hydrocarbons


Tacrom introduction acidizing

TACROM INTRODUCTIONAcidizing

  • Apart from acid fracturing jobs, there are also two categories of acid treatment:

    - acid washing

    - matrix acidizing

  • In acid washing, the objective is simply tubular and wellbore cleaning. Treatment of the formation is not intended.

  • For matrix acidizing, acids are used to create enhanced productivity when the acid reacts with the soluble substances in the formation matrix to enlarge the pore spaces.

  • Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is occasionally used in sandstones for the removal of fines or clay minerals. It is never used in carbonate reservoirs as it produces an insoluble precipitate (calcium fluoride)


Tacrom introduction gravel packs

TACROM INTRODUCTIONGravel-Packs

  • Gravel-packs are sand control operations applicable to unconsolidated hydrocarbons reservoirs in terms of reducing dramatically the sand flow, this way extending the work over intervals and life for bottomhole equipment


Tacrom introduction well candidate evaluation

TACROM INTRODUCTIONWell Candidate Evaluation

Hydraulic fracturing is generally applicable in reservoirs with low permeabilities (< 10 mD)

FracPacks (Sand Control) in moderately permeable reservoirs

Well selection involves finding candidates that will benifit from increasing payzone conductivity

All treatments require reservoir pressure for the drive mechanism

The history of stimulation operations should be taken into consideration


Tacrom introduction company structure

TACROM INTRODUCTIONWell Candidate Evaluation

  • The fracture must not propagate in water-saturated zones

  • Wells with high skin factor

  • Wellbore integrity

  • Possibility of equipment emplacement at the wellsite


Tacrom introduction fracture summary

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFracture Summary


Tacrom introduction statistics of increased production

TACROM INTRODUCTIONStatistics of Increased Production


Tacrom introduction operational overview

TACROM INTRODUCTIONOperational Overview

All of the services provided by Tacrom Services are done in a professional manner

Production gained after stimulation average 2 to 4 times more.


Tacrom introduction fracturing equipment

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFracturing Equipment

10 m3/min Blender. Fully process controled

Hydration Unit. On the fly mixing of polymer

2,250 HHP Pumptrucks.

State of the Art Data Acquisition Truck

Sandtruck - proppant handling

Efficient Rig Up/Down

Heating and filtering of frac fluid

Purpose built, stackable frac tanks

Providing underbalanced well cleanout after the frac


Tacrom introduction 10 m3 min blender

TACROM INTRODUCTION10 m3/min BLENDER


Tacrom introduction 10 m3 min blender1

TACROM INTRODUCTION10 m3/min BLENDER

  • Truck mounted hydraulically driven mixing and blending unit

  • Fully computerized on the fly mixing capability

    • 2 each sand screws up to 6,0 tons / min

    • 2 each dry additive feeders

    • 2 each liquid additive feeders

  • 450 HP available from truck engine


Tacrom introduction hydration unit

TACROM INTRODUCTIONHydration Unit


Tacrom introduction hydration unit1

TACROM INTRODUCTIONHydration Unit

  • Mixing Unit for linear gel preparation

  • Hydraulically driven pumps. Installed Power 410 HP

  • Discharge rate: Up to 10 m3/minute

  • Chemical Feeders:

    1 each dry chemical feeder for guar injection

    3 each liquid chemical pumps with coreolis flow meters

  • 26 m3 on board storage

  • 3 magflow flow meters for mixing and transferring fluid

  • Total “mix on the fly” technology. No contamination of water tanks. No wasted chemicals or mixing time compared to batch mixing


Tacrom introduction 60 tonnes proppant truck

TACROM INTRODUCTION60 tonnes Proppant Truck


Tacrom introduction 60 tonnes proppant truck1

TACROM INTRODUCTION60 tonnes Proppant Truck

Hydraulically operated Dumper

Fully enclosed, two compartment design

42 m3 storage capacity (60 ton maximum)

Roadweight 36 tons maximum


Tacrom introduction 2250 hhp pump unit

TACROM INTRODUCTION2250 HHP Pump Unit


Tacrom introduction 2250 hhp pump unit1

TACROM INTRODUCTION2250 HHP Pump Unit

Truck mounted remote controlled pump units

SPM Triplex Pump, 5“ Fluid End, Allison Transmision, MTU Diesel Engine

Work Pressure: 1000 bar max.

Rate: 500 – 2200 l/min


Tacrom introduction data acquisition truck

TACROM INTRODUCTIONData Acquisition Truck


Tacrom introduction data acquisition truck1

TACROM INTRODUCTIONData Acquisition Truck

Air Conditioned Design

Self Powered - 30 kW Generator

Remote Control Frac Equipment

Monitoring and Data Recording

Real time data transfer to customer

State of the Art Meyer‘s Software

MFrac – Treatment Design

MinFrac - Minifrac Analyses

MFrac & MView – Treatment Control


Tacrom introduction data acquisition truck2

TACROM INTRODUCTIONData Acquisition Truck


Tacrom introduction 3 spm 1502 piping

TACROM INTRODUCTION3“ SPM 1502 Piping


Tacrom introduction combination heating filtering unit

TACROM INTRODUCTIONCombination heating/filtering unit


Tacrom itroduction combination heating filtering unit

TACROM ITRODUCTIONCombination heating/filtering unit

  • Compact 4x4 chassis

  • Parallel, double pod design for efficient operation

  • 100 microns primary and 5 microns secondary filters

  • 90 m3/ hour filtering (with normal field water)

  • 3.5 million BTU (1025 kW/hr) heater unit

  • 45 m3/hour heating (from 20C to 200C.)

  • Heat alone,filter alone, or combination


Tacrom introduction filtering unit

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFiltering unit


Tacrom introduction filtering unit1

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFiltering unit

  • Compact skid or design

  • Transport on trailer or flatbed truck

  • 24 kW Hatz diesel motor

  • Parallel, double pod design for efficient operation

  • 100 micron primary and 5 micron secondary filters

  • 90 m3/ hour filtering (with normal field water)

  • Clean and filter simultaneously


Tacrom introduction intermediate 2800m ctu

TACROM INTRODUCTIONIntermediate, 2800m CTU


Tacrom introduction intermediate ctu

TACROM INTRODUCTIONIntermediate CTU

  • 2800 meters of 1 ¼ tubing on the reel

  • Compact, efficient design. Crane included on unit.

  • 18 scm/minute 210 bar air compressor included

  • Foamer pump included for foam cleanouts

  • All variables recorded during the operation

  • Full job report given to customer. Graphical and/or tabular data offered

  • Optional pressure control equipment. Low cost 210 bar annular bag or 700 bar bop‘s. Double or triple pressure control offered.

  • Optional nitrogen service for inert gas requirements

  • Extremely fast Rig up and rig down.

  • Fully trained, experienced crew.


Tacrom introduction flowback trailer

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFlowback Trailer

  • 10 m3 Flowback trailer delivered with CT unit.

  • Compact, efficient design.

  • Handles all wellbore debris

  • Degasser included.

  • No spills. No mess.


Tacrom introduction flameless nitrogen pumper

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFlameless Nitrogen Pumper


Tacrom introduction flameless nitrogen pumper1

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFlameless Nitrogen Pumper

  • 10-85 scm/minute pump rates possible

  • 700 bar pressure limitation

  • Highly accurate Electromagnetic flowmeter

  • Flameless heating of nitrogen for safe operation

  • Full recording of all pumping variables. All data will be included in the customer report

  • 10,000 liter on board storage tank. Most jobs will not require additional product.

  • Customer charged only for nitrogen pumped down the well.


Tacrom introduction mobile versatile purpose built equipment

TACROM INTRODUCTIONMobile, versatile, purpose built equipment


Tacrom introduction treatment design

TACROM INTRODUCTIONTreatment Design

Well selection involves finding candidates that will benifit from increasing payzone conductivity. High pressure, low perm, high skin wells are the most desired candidates.

Meyer‘s Frac Software

State of the Art Software Package

Continous Upgrading

MFrac – Treatment Design

Minfrac – Pressure Analyses

MView – Data Processing

MProd & MNPV - Economics


Tacrom introduction meyer s software

TACROM INTRODUCTIONMeyer‘s Software

Process Control

Frac Data Management

Frac Design

Frac Geometry Modelling

Matching Production to stimulation design


Tacrom introduction

TACROM INTRODUCTION

DATA REQUIREMENTS

Reservoir Data

Geo-Mechanical Data

Frac Fluid Data

Proppant Data

DATA SOURCES

Well Logs

Core and Cuttings Analyses

Well Tests


Tacrom introduction rock properties mfrac

TACROM INTRODUCTION Rock Properties MFRAC


Tacrom introduction fracture geometry mfrac

TACROM INTRODUCTION Fracture Geometry MFRAC


Tacrom introduction minifrac

TACROM INTRODUCTIONMinifrac

Step Rate Test

Fracture Extension Pressure

Step Down Test

Near Wellbore Friction

Perforation Friction

Pressure Decline Analysis

ISIP

Fluid Efficiency

kh, k, p*


Tacrom introduction step rate test minfrac

TACROM INTRODUCTION STEP RATE TEST MinFRAC


Tacrom introduction step down test minfrac

TACROM INTRODUCTION STEP DOWN TEST MinFRAC


Tacrom introduction minifrac analisys minfrac

TACROM INTRODUCTIONMinifrac Analisys MinFRAC


Tacrom introduction1

TACROM INTRODUCTION

MView / MFrac

Control Treatment Net Pressure

Early Detection of Screen Out

Displacement

MProd / MNpv

Production analysis and future production estimation

Net present value


Tacrom introduction real time parameters mview

TACROM INTRODUCTIONReal time parameters MView


Tacrom introduction prefrac production estimation mprod

TACROM INTRODUCTION Prefrac Production Estimation MProd


Tacrom introduction net present value mnpv

TACROM INTRODUCTION Net Present Value MNpv


Tacrom introduction fluid systems chemicals

FRAC FLUIDS

Water Base

Oil Base

Foam Base

Acid Base

PROPPANT

Quartz Sand

Sintered Bauxite

Ceramics

Resin Coated

ADDITIVES

Biocides

Buffers

Polymers

Crosslinkers

Temperature Stabilizers

Breakers

Friction Reducers

Surfactants

Demulsifier

Foamer

Clay Stabilizer

Fluid Loss Additives

Diverters

TACROM INTRODUCTIONFluid Systems & Chemicals


Tacrom introduction2

TACROM INTRODUCTION

  • What can Tacrom do for you?

    • Assist in well selection

    • Assist in well preparation

    • Arrange subcontractors for logging, downhole equipment and surface pressure equipment.

    • Supply engineering for frac design

    • Supply tanks, equipment and chemicals for stimulation treatments

    • Perform well stimulation treatments with acid or proppant fracs

    • Gravel-packs operations

    • Perform matrix acid treatments with or without nitrogen, using conventional tubing or coil tubing

    • Post frac underbalanced cleanout using coil tubing


Tacrom introduction3

TACROM INTRODUCTION

THANK YOU

QUESTIONS


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