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COLUMBIA BASIN KELTS: ABUNDANCE, DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE, AND REPEAT SPAWNING

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COLUMBIA BASIN KELTS: ABUNDANCE, DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE, AND REPEAT SPAWNING. Introduction. Part I: Life After Spawning Kelt Identification Kelt Abundance and Population Structure Kelt Migration Travel Rates Dam Passage In-river Survival. Introduction cont.

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction

Part I: Life After Spawning

  • Kelt Identification
  • Kelt Abundance and Population Structure
  • Kelt Migration
    • Travel Rates
      • Dam Passage
        • In-river Survival
introduction cont
Introduction cont.

Part II: Iteroparity and Management

  • Repeat Spawning Rates
  • Restoration Options/Strategies
  • Research and Management Needs
iteroparity in the pacific northwest
Iteroparity in the Pacific Northwest

Several anadromous, iteroparous salmonid species (e.g., steelhead, sea-run cutthroats, dolly varden, arctic char, and inconnu (sheefish).

steelhead repeat spawning
Steelhead Repeat Spawning
  • Up to four repeat spawning events possible
  • Consecutive and skip-spawners present
  • Female dominated life history
  • High repeat spawning variation (1% to 75%, X=10%)

- Differences in run types (winter vs. summer)

- Geographic differences (Coast vs. Inland)

- Annual differences

repeat spawning columbia basin
Repeat Spawning: Columbia Basin

Columbia River: ranges from < 1% to 17%

kelts the forgotten life history
Kelts: The Forgotten Life History

Kelts:

  • Post-spawned salmonid capable of iteroparity
  • Inherent life history trait
  • Limited by environmental (natural and anthropogenic) and biological constraints

Benefits of protection:

  • Recognition of life history diversity
  • “Best of the Best”
  • Female dominated runs
  • Preserve plasticity
kelt identification
Kelt Identification
  • Geographic and temporal over-lap of maturation types
  • Visual methods est. between 2-25% kelt abundance
  • Need for rapid, accurate, and non-invasive method

- morphology

- Steroids

- Ultrasound

  • Ultrasound is the superior method
kelt abundance
Kelt Abundance

* RSW installed at LGR

kelt population structure cont
Kelt Population Structure cont..

Hatchery Versus Wild Kelt Run Timing

kelt population structure cont1
Kelt Population Structure Cont.

Female versus Male Run Timing

Female Kelt Run

LGR = 84%

McN = 87%*

JDD = 86%*

* Excludes unknowns

slide16

Kelt Migration:

 Radio-telemetry

1.5 Grams

kelt migration travel rates
Kelt Migration: Travel Rates
  • Travel times were positively associated with river discharge
  • Significantly faster in 02 (normal year) relative to 01 (drought).
  • Travel times were significantly faster in free-flow reach
kelt migration dam passage
Kelt Migration: Dam Passage

Bonneville Dam (B2) Forebay Residence Time

B2 Kcfs

2004 = ~105

2002 = ~109

% exited

2004 (N=235)

2002 (N=50)

kelt migration survival 2001

Cumulative

travel time (hrs)

Contact

Attrition

Contact

history

Dam tailrace

(R km)

Kelt Migration: Survival (2001)

264

658

656

600

610

601

348

150

-43%

-13%

-62%

-16%

-22%

-37%

-35%

-34%

3%

4%

10%

12%

15%

24%

37%

64%

I-205

(184)

BON

TDA

JDA

MCN

ICH

LMN

LGS

LGR

(696)

kelt migration survival
Kelt Migration: Survival

*good and fair kelts only…poor condition kelts rarely survive outmigration

a Wertheimer and Evans (2005)

slide24

Kelt Repeat Spawning Rates

John Day = 6.2% (140/2,265)

McNary = 5.3% (32/603)

Lower Granite 0.9% (54/5,885)

3

62

8

The

Dalles

112

222

John Day

kelt restoration options strategies
Kelt Restoration Options/Strategies:

Hydro-system configuration & operation

Transportation

Kelt Reconditioning

kelt restoration options strategies1
Kelt Restoration Options/Strategies
  • Spill is an efficient passage option for kelts
  • Surface oriented bypass structures (e.g., sluiceways) are effective ways to pass kelts.
  • Increased flows result in increased travel rates and higher survival.
  • Removable Spillway

Weirs

kelt restoration strategies
Kelt Restoration Strategies

Transportation

Snake River (LGR 02):

Trans = 2.5% (19/751)

In-river = 0.8% (8/1,066)

Columbia River (JDD 02):

Trans = 11.9% (34/286)

In-river = 10.1% (25/247)

*values are minimum and returning fish are predominately female

kelt restoration options strategies2
Kelt Restoration Options/Strategies

Reconditioning

  • Kelt ID and capture
  • Feeding and treatment
  • Maturation appraisal
  • Release for natural spawning
  • Short and Long-term
reconditioning results
Reconditioning Results

a Evans et al. (2001) ; b Hatch et al. (2003); c Fast (pers. comm.)

slide31

Yakima R. Steelhead Escapementwith Reconditioning

2.4%

7.3%

14.4%

Date provide by Dave Fast (YN)

Percentage increase in escapement due to reconditioning.

research and management needs
Research and Management Needs
  • Collected baseline data on Upper Columbia River kelts; abundance, survival, dam passage, and iteroparity rates

* Action Agencies = NOAA Fisheries and PUDs

  • Establish a reconditioning program for Lower Snake River kelts *Action Agencies = NOAA Fisheries, U.S. Army Corps, and BPA
  • Include kelts and repeat spawners in both regional and local recovery plans; including fish outside of the Columbia River Basin.
summary
Summary
  • Kelts are abundant, good condition, predominately female, and wild.
  • If available, passage is predominately via spillway or alternative surface oriented routes.
  • Out-migration success is negatively correlated with passage distance and positively correlated with water conditions.
  • Iteroparity increases down river, skip-spawning rates decrease.
  • Several kelt management options exist (e.g., hydro system configuration/operation, transportation, and reconditioning).
  • Kelts should be a component of regional steelhead recovery efforts.
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