Plyometrics

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History of Plyometrics. Originally known as ?Jump Training"began in 60's in Eastern Europe (track

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Plyometrics

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1. Plyometrics Training for Explosive Movements Taking Advantage of the Neuro-Muscular System Transition out of the weight room and onto the field or court. Important to note that plyometric exercises can be used for non-athletes as well.Transition out of the weight room and onto the field or court. Important to note that plyometric exercises can be used for non-athletes as well.

2. History of Plyometrics Originally known as “Jump Training” began in 60’s in Eastern Europe (track & field; power lifting, gymnastics athletes dominated the world) became popular in U.S. in 70’s First coined the term in 1975 Latin term meaning “measurable increases” defined - anaerobic technique to enable muscle to reach maximum strength in shortest period of time (power) Its not important in most sports to be able to exert maximal forces if it is at the expense of time.Its not important in most sports to be able to exert maximal forces if it is at the expense of time.

3. Science of Plyometric Training Types of Muscle Contractions isometric, concentric, eccentric Sports, change of direction is essential eccentric – used to decelerate body followed by explosive concentric contraction called “eccentric loading” can take advantage of the stretch shortening cycle (SSC) stored energy – series elastic component (SEC) & stretch reflex (muscle spindles) Change of direction – tennis, football, basketball Jumping – lowering phase first, volleyball, basketball, long/high jump Think of a spring – loading the spring allows for recoil (SEC)Change of direction – tennis, football, basketball Jumping – lowering phase first, volleyball, basketball, long/high jump Think of a spring – loading the spring allows for recoil (SEC)

4. Science of Plyometric Training Two types of fibers in muscle Extrafusal – contain myofibrils for contraction Intrafusal – “muscle spindles” lie parallel to extrafusal fibers & respond to stretch; creating “stretch reflex” (SR) based on stretch-reflex principle (muscle stretched just prior to contraction creates more force than from a relaxed position)

5. Concepts to Plyometric Training Important to minimize time on ground Energy stored in stretch shortening cycle (SEC & SR) allow for minimal time if time is too long, energy can be lost (short as .1 seconds) Faster a muscle is stretched, > concentric contraction (minimal delay means faster contraction) Time on ground may be largely dependent on learning (can train) Lowered center of gravity (COG) improves change of direction The more time your foot remains in contact with the greater loss of energy through friction -we want to teach quick foot movements (strike and release)The more time your foot remains in contact with the greater loss of energy through friction -we want to teach quick foot movements (strike and release)

6. Are They Ready for Plyometrics? In general: <13 low level 13 – 16 moderate level > 16 any level **however, must be consistent with athletes level of training (weight, orthopedic conditions, fitness level, maturity, etc.) High Level Checks 1 RM Squat Check - can they squat 70-100% of body weight 5 RM Squat Check - can they squat 60% of body weight 5 times in 5 secs. Hand Clap Pushup - >5 reps Perform on “giving” surface, grass, mats, wood, astro-turf (NEVER cement) Plyometric training can be inappropriate for certain individuals and it is important for us to determine whether a client or athlete is ready or notPlyometric training can be inappropriate for certain individuals and it is important for us to determine whether a client or athlete is ready or not

7. Equipment Cones Tape measure Boxes (6-24 inches) higher for elite Medicine Balls Hurdles Bleachers Agility Ladders

8. Warm Up Activities ESSENTIAL eccentric loading is very stressful to tissues (muscle, tendons, ligaments, bones) 10 minute aerobic activity to muscles being used 10 minutes of stretching (dynamic, static, light ballistic stretching) Following Drills can be considered “low level plyometrics”

9. 5 Key Components of Knee Joint Positioning knees stay in line with toes **teach athletes to NOT allow knee to move into a “valgus” position knees don’t cross toe line femur doesn’t break parallel to floor don’t hyperextend knees

10. Warm Up Drills Marching Drills Mimic running movements Allows trainer to emphasize various components of running arm swing, hip flexion, ankle plantar flexion Train hip flexors & plantar flexors High Knees

11. Warm Up Drills Lunges Stretch hip flexors & gastrocnemius Strengthen quads & gluteals Helps to increase stride length (essential component to speed) Striders

12. Warm Up Drills Backward Running Strengthen hamstring & hip extensors Essential for protecting ACL & hamstring strains, by training hamstrings to work with eccentric forces Helps with proprioception Focus on low center of gravity

13. Warm Up Drills Carioca Improves hip rotation & foot placement (agility) Upper body should remain still Side Steps

14. Warm Up Drills Butt Kickers Train hamstrings > flexion of knee shortens lever allowing leg to move through cycle in shorter period of time heel recovery is essential for absolute speed **remember hamstrings tend to get under trained Weak hamstrings can contribute to ACL problems

15. Warm Up Drills Toe Jogging Train gastrocnemius & Achilles tendon Use very short rapid turnover movements

16. Safety Rules for Plyometrics Assess Readiness of Client/Athlete Surface - “giving” surface, grass, mats, wood, astro-turf (NEVER cement) Shoes (wide sole, significant cushioning) Ball of toe hits first and then heel (whole foot should make contact) Landings reversed quickly, minimal time on ground Use arms for lifting (utilize upper extremity movements) Quality not quantity of movements Begin with lower level & work over time to higher levels

17. Key Concepts to Body Movements Low Center of Gravity (COG) – allows for greater push off & change of direction fatigue raises COG Avoid valgus movements on knee Avoid knee over toe Develop Proprioceptors teach working up to movements while focusing on other activities

18. Classifications of Plyometrics Exercises 7 Classifications (each with low to high skill) Jumps in place Standing jumps Multiple jumps Box drills Depth jumps Bounding Medicine ball exercises

19. Skills Developed by Plyometric Exercise

20. Jumps in Place Single Foot Side to Side Ankle Hops helps starting speed, change of direction, & ankle stability & proprioception Split Squat Jump Start speed, ? acceleration from ready position, prevent groin injuries Straight Pike Jump start speed & hip flexor strength, increase hang time

21. Standing Jumps Standing Long Jump - build hip extensors & quads, horizontal jump, prevent knee injuries, teaches use of arms (focus on proper landing) 1,2,3 Drill - start speed & vertical jump, rhythm for vertical jumping Standing Long Jump with Change of Direction - helps with lateral movements & change of direction

22. Hexagon drill– change of direction skills, builds ankle, hip ab/adductors, center body after change of direction Lateral Cone Hops - acceleration & lateral change of direction, proprioception of ankles, hip ab/adductors Stadium Hops - start speed & vertical jump, gluts and quads

23. Box Jumps Determining Box Jump Height Assess Vertical Jump Using an 18” box have client/athlete jump off box & see if they can attain same vertical height if yes, continue to ? box height until they can no longer reach height highest box used while still attaining vertical jump, will be highest box height they use for training If can’t rebound off 18” box, they may need to focus on strength training prior to box jumps

24. Box Drills Single Leg Push Off –ankle & lower stability, reaction 60 sec. Box Drill (3) – change of direction skills, anaerobic system (ATP/PC & glycolysis), muscular endurance Multiple Box to Box Drill –start speed, vertical jump

25. Depth Jumps Most Intense - Depth Jump to Prescribed Height – quad strength, vertical jump Incline Push up Depth Jump – chest, triceps, & deltoid strength, excellent for scapular protraction Single Leg Depth Jump (5) – used when single leg jumping is more important, watch ankle/knee positions

26. Bounding Bounding Power Skipping – hip flexion strength & ROM Moving Split Squat with Cycle - improves stride frequency/length & power; hip ab/adductors Single Leg Bounding – speed development & horizontal jumps

27. Medicine Ball Exercises Pullover Pass – throwing & striking motions, abs, Kneeling Side Throw – trunk rotation & stability Catch & Pass with Jump and Reach – coordinating lower body & upper body movements

28. Summary of Plyometrics Science Behind Plyometrics Stretch Shortening Cycle Series Elastic Component & Muscle Spindles Appropriateness for Client/Athlete & Safety Rules How can we determine safe level? Warm Up Exercises Specific purpose of exercises Teach Landing Mechanics 7 Classifications of Plyometrics Benefits of each plyometric exercise

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