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The Role and Responsibilities of District Leaders in Raising Reading Achievement and Closing Achievement Gaps for All Students. Russlynn Ali – Director, The Education Trust-West October 26, 2005. Where Are We Now? US NAEP Long Term Trends.

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The Role and Responsibilities of District Leaders in Raising Reading Achievement and Closing Achievement Gaps for All Students

Russlynn Ali – Director, The Education Trust-WestOctober 26, 2005


Where Are We Now?US NAEP Long Term Trends


Looking at National Long Term Trends, Achievement Gaps for Younger Hispanic and African American Students Are Narrowing


African American-White Gap Narrows to Smallest Size in HistoryNAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds

26

35

29

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress


Latino-White Gap Narrows to Smallest Size in HistoryNAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds

21

28

24

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress


Middle School?


8th GradeNAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress


Gaps Getting Bigger in Middle SchoolAfrican American-White Gap NAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds

18

29

22

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress


Latino-White Gap NAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds

24

21

23

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress


High School?


NAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress


Gaps Biggest in High School . . . and GrowingAfrican American-White GapNAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds

21

29

31


Latino-White GapNAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds

22

24

29


How is California Doing Relative to Other States?


California’s NAEP Scores for 4th Grade Reading Lag Behind Other States

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/


Latino 4th Grade Students – NAEP READING

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/


African American 4th Grade Students –

NAEP READING

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/


And Let’s Be Clear. It’s Not Our Demographics.


California’s White 4th Grade Students Are Closer to the US Average in Reading, But Still Behind Many States

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/


California’s Asian 4th Grade Students Also Lag Behind Many States

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/


White 8th Graders in California Read Below Their Peers in Other States


When students’ family backgrounds were controlled for, California’s 2003 NAEP scores were the lowest in the nation.

Source: California’s k-12 Public Schools: How Are They Doing, RAND, 2005


How are California students doing on our own assessments?


ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CST All Students 2005


Underneath Those Averages, There are Wide Gaps.


ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS4th Grade, By EthnicityCST 2005


ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS4th Grade, By Economic StatusCST 2005


ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS8th Grade, By EthnicityCST 2005


ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS8th Grade, By Economic StatusCST 2005


ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS11th Grade, By EthnicityCST 2005


ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS11th Grade, By Economic StatusCST 2005


In the end, these gaps mean poor students and students of color are years behind their peers.


African American and Latino 7th graders read at about the level of White 3rd graders

CAT/6 2005


Gaps grow wider the longer students remain in our schools. When do they start?


Low income 3-year-olds have significantly smaller vocabularies than their more affluent peers.

Source: Hart, B. & Risley, T.R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experiences of Young American Children excerpted in American Educator, Spring 2003.


Black and Hispanic children are significantly less likely than White children to know their letters when they enter kindergarten.

Percent of children

Source: America’s Kindergartners. NCES 2000-070.


Are Gaps Closing Over Time in California?


Achievement Gaps Hold SteadyALL CA STUDENTS, GRADES 2-11- English CST

Latino-White Gap: 33 points

Latino-White Gap: 34 points

Source: California Dept of Education, 2005


Now, the Most Important Questions. . .WHY?And What To Do About It?


Learning and Spreading the Message:HOPE! There are high-poverty and high-minority schools all over the country that are closing opportunity gaps, raising achievement and narrowing achievement gaps. Learn what they’re doing. Celebrate their success.


Closing the Black-White Gap


A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County

Source: California Department of Education http://www.cde.ca.gov


A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County

Source: California Department of Education http://www.cde.ca.gov


A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County

Source: California Department of Education http://www.cde.ca.gov


A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County

Source: California Department of Education http://www.cde.ca.gov


A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County

Source: California Department of Education http://www.cde.ca.gov


A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County: 3rd Graders at Yamato Reading at the Level of 5th Graders at Sparkes

Source: California Department of Education, 2004


Dispelling the Myth in ReadingHolland ElementaryFresno Unified

  • 52% Latino

  • 100% Low-income

  • Surpassing state average in 4th Grade Reading

Source: California Department of Education


Dispelling the Myth in MathTowne Avenue ElementaryLos Angeles Unified

  • 70% Latino

  • 87% Low-income

  • Surpassing state average in 4th Grade Math

Source: California Department of Education


Some districts...


Where There’s an Achievement Gap, There are Big Opportunity Gaps.

  • Teacher Gap: Inequitable Distribution of Qualified Teachers

  • Standards: Gaps in Opportunity to Learn the Highest

  • Curriculum Gaps: Gaps in Opportunity to Access the Most Rigorous Curriculum

  • Funding Gaps: Fewer Dollars Spent on the Students who Need the Most.

Close these Opportunity Gaps and Achievement Gaps will close too.


Would More Money Help?


Yes, More Money Will Help.

But how much it will help depends on how wisely we spend it.

Until more comes, schools can and ARE making great gains.


Some Districts Get More for Less.


Some districts that out-perform spend less$= Cost-adjusted per-pupil spending

$8,019

$7,417

$10,634

$7,512

$7,419

$7,981

$7,899

$12,339

$12,619

$9,639

$10,995

Red= District spends less than L.ABlue= District spends more than L.A.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003 Trial Urban District Reading Assessment. And U.S. Census 02-03


EXPECTATIONS MATTER A LOT!


Cycle of Low Expectations

Low Expectations

Poor Test Results

Less Challenging Courses

Low Level Assignments/Instruction


Only 26% of Teachers Believe All Students Should be Held to Same Standard

Source: Ready for the Real World: Americans Speak on High School Reform, ETS, 2005


Close the Expectations-Gap

“Schools that tended to demonstrate a strong culture of high expectations—as evidenced by their attention to meeting and exceeding state and federal accountability targets and setting high standards for student achievement —on average had higher API scores. . .

Equally important, better school performance seems to be associated with both teachers’ and principals’ reports that teachers at the school take responsibility for and are committed to improving student achievement.”

Source: Williams, T., Kirst, M., Haertel, E., et al. (2005). Similar Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A large-scale survey of California elementary schools serving low-income students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource. - Initial Report of Findings, see www.edsource.org.


Good Teachers Matter More Than Anything Else


But poor and minority students don’t get their fair share of our strongest teachers.


2004 by The Education Trust-West

Students in California’s Highest Minority Schools Five Times More Likely To Have An Underqualified Teacher

Source:Esch, C. E., Chang-Ross, C. M., Guha, R., Tiffany-Morales, J., & Shields, P.M. (2004).

California’s teaching force 2004: Key issues and trends. Santa Cruz, CA: The Center for

the Future of Teaching and Learning, p. 35.


And, not surprisingly, when students have more underprepared teachers, they do less well.

Source: California’s Approach to Math Instruction Doesn’t Add Up, Center for The Future of Teaching and Learning, April 2005


Reframing the Conversation – Making it About Money


Education study points to disparity in quality

Group studies LBUSD teachers' pay

Study: Teachers at needy schools earn less

SCHOOLS’ GREAT DIVIDE: No Incentive for more-experienced teachers to go where they’re needed most

Vallejo Times-Herald

La Opinión

Affluent Visalia schools pay more

Teacher salary study shows disparities

The Sacramento Bee

Discriminan a maestros y estudiantes

VCUSD, Vacaville are anomaly in state - spending more money on minority students

State’s teacher pay gap studied: Salaries found to be lower at schools with more poverty and minorities

Ed Trust finds disparities in teacher pay within districts

Report: Teacher salary gaps between white, high-minority schools

Rich, white schools pay teachers more: Report finds large gaps in salaries based on race, income of populations

The Fresno Bee

Teachers paid less at poorest schools

State’s teacher pay gap examined

CONTRA COSTA TIMES

Schools 'fair' with funding

The Press-Enterprise

Study shows that teachers not evenly distributed in state's school districts

Less is spent on education of minorities

Report: Disparity in teacher salaries

Disparities in teacher salaries

Salary Totals Found Lower in Poor Schools

Report Shows Uneven Spending on Teachers Within Calif. Districts

The Orange County Register

San Francisco Bay View

Teacher pay varies with school poverty

Study finds big gap in teachers’ salaries

School districts shortchange students of color

NORTH COUNTY TIMES

LAUSD pay rates favor needy areas

Report: Districts put highly paid teachers in low-income schools


Dollars Spent on Teachers – 80% of a School’s Budget

Source:California’s Hidden Teacher Spending Gap: How State and District Budgeting Practices Shortchange Poor and Minority Students and Their Schools, Education Trust West, 2005.


Average School Gaps in 10 Largest CA Districts by School Type


A Tale of Two Schools

Didion Elementary School

Sacramento City Unified

  • 21% Latino & African American

  • 12% of students - free or reduced price lunch

  • Academic Performance Index = 894

Kemble Elementary School

Sacramento City Unified

  • 68% Latino & African American

  • 86% of students - free or reduced price lunch

  • Academic Performance Index = 552

Source: California Dept of Ed, 2003-04 data


Looking at these two schools, some might automatically think…

Student demographics = lower student performance

But this assumption ignores the underlying factors….


The average teacher at Kemble Elementary gets paid an estimated$13,392 lessevery year than his counterpart at Didion Elementary.

If Kemble spent as much on Didion on teacher salaries for its 30 teachers, the school budget would increase by$400,000every year.


What does this mean in terms of dollars? Shortchanging Poor Schools and Their Students.

www.hiddengap.org


If we had the courage and creativity to change these patterns?


“The Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain estimates of teacher performance suggest that having five years of good teachers in a row* could overcome the average seventh-grade mathematics achievement gap […].”

* “1.0 standard deviation above average, or at the 85th quality percentile”

SOURCE: Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, “How to Improve the Supply of High-Quality Teachers,”

In Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 2004,” Diane Ravitch, ed., Brrookings Institution Press, 2004.

Estimates based on research using data from Texas described in “Teachers, Schools, and Academic

Achievement,” Working Paper Number 6691, National Bureau of Economic Research, revised July 2002.


Practices that Work

  • To the extent possible, provide your best teachers to the students who need them the most.

  • Create Professional Learning Communities or other opportunities for teachers to share expertise and learn from one another.


Goals. Stretch Goals.At the State, Local, School and Classroom Levels. Goals For Yearly Progress Must Also be Clear – and Focused on Gap Closing.


STRETCH and GAP-CLOSING GOALS!Long before NCLB, state officials waxed eloquent that proficiency is our goal for ALL kids. Improvement alone is not enough, accountability system must also set an ambitious time line to reach the end goal.


Distribution for California Schools with over 50 Percent White Students across the 10 API Ranks in 2004

Source: Unpublished analysis by WestEd, 2005.


Distribution for California Schools with over 50 Percent African American Students across the 10 API Ranks in 2004

Source: Unpublished analysis by WestEd, 2005.


Distribution for California Schools with over 50 Percent Latino Students across the 10 API Ranksin 2004


Local, School and Classroom Stretch Goals.

High Standards and Specific Goals For What Students Should Learn in Every Grade LevelALIGNED TO ASSESSMENTS


What Works?

“Teachers who report schoolwide instructional consistency within grades — and curricular alignment from grade-to-grade —work in schools that performed better on average. . .Those teachers who reported that their school has identified essential standards and that their classroom instruction is guided by state academic standardswere also more likely to be in high performing schools. They report that the school’s curriculum materials in math and language arts are aligned with the state’s standards and that they frequently map state curriculum standards onto their classroom lesson plans.”

Source: Williams, T., Kirst, M., Haertel, E., et al. (2005). Similar Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A large-scale survey of California elementary schools serving low-income students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource. - Initial Report of Findings, see www.edsource.org.


Historically, most of the really important decisions about what students should learn and what kind of work was “good enough” left to individual teachers.


Students can do

no better than

the assignments

they are given...


Grade 7 Writing Assignment

Essay on Anne Frank

Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel.

Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book

You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area.

Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.


Grade 7 Writing Assignment

  • My Best Friend:

  • A chore I hate:

  • A car I want:

  • My heartthrob:

Source: Unnamed school district in California, 2002-03 school year.


‘A’ Work in Poor Schools Would Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools

Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.


Good standards help…

Source: Model College Prep Curriculum from “On Course for Success”, EdTrust and ACT, 2005


Course Titles Don’t Guarantee Good Instruction.

…But not if they sit on the shelf.


CA: Language Arts Curriculum Calibration Analysis

Source: DataWorks Education Research, 2002.


High Performing Districts: Elementary School Curriculum:

  • Usually common across schools;

  • Model lessons that teachers may use.

    In High School:

  • Enroll them as if they are going on to college, and let them be empowered to make the choice!

  • All students enrolled in the A-G Curriculum


SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6Matched Reading Scores at Grades 4-9 for Students who Have Been Tested with STAR Every Year Since 1998

Gap

reduced by 48%

Median National Percentile

*CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale

Source: San Jose Unified School District


SJUSD SAT9 & CAT6 Matched Mathematics Scores at Grades 3-9 for Students who Have Been Tested with STAR Every Year Since 1998

Gap reduced

by 43%

Median National Percentile

*CAT6 scores adjusted to SAT9 scale

Source: San Jose Unified School District


Even though most students want to go to college, the truth is, many low income students and students of color aren’t getting the classes in the first place.


But A-G Isn’t Just About College.Why Ontario, Canada is a better location for a new Toyota plant…

“The level of the workforce in general is so high the training program you need for people, even for people who have never worked in a Toyota plant before, is minimal compared to what you have to go through in the southeastern United States,”

--Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005

Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html


“In Alabama, trainers had to use ‘pictorials’ to teach some illiterate workers how to use high-tech plant equipment.”

--Gerry Fedchun, president of Automotive Parts Manufacturers’ Association, 7/8/2005

Source: www.cbc.ca/cp/business/050630/b0630102.html


Focus on Proven Supports for Teachers and Students:Especially Professional Development and More Time to get the Job Done


Professional Development:High Implementation Schools Wipe Out Black/White Gap in Math Skills: Pittsburgh

Note: Chart compares students in schools with similar demographics.

Source: Briar and Resnick, CSE Technical Report 528, CRESST, UCLA, August 2000.


  • Provide time & support for teachers to learn how to adapt instruction to the needs of their students.

  • Shift professional development from a “one-shot” or “one-size-fits-all” model to an ongoing, embedded coaching/mentoring model.

  • To the extent possible, adjust schedules/ calendars so that students get the most instructional time possible.


MORE TIME IS KEY.All Must Mean All. But Not All in the Same Time. Some Students, Especially Low Performing Students, Need More Time.


USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TIME

Analysis of One California Urban Middle School Calendar

The Full Year Calendar

Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA


Less Summer Vacation

Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA


Less Weekends, Holidays, & Summer Vacation

Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA


Less Professional Development Days & Early Dismissal/Parent Conferences

Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA


Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving Feast, Christmas, Kwanzaa, Hanukkah, Awards, Assembles, & Concerts

Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA


Less State and District Testing and Other Non-Instructional Time

Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA


Use of Instructional Time?

BOTTOM LINE?

Teachers are Left with about

24 School Days

OR

18 Eight Hour Days Per Subject Per Year


Students and Teachers Need More Time

When Kids Are Behind, Schools Must Provide More Instruction and Support:

  • Kentucky provides extra time for struggling students in high-poverty schools, in whatever way works best for the community: before school, after school, weekends or summers.

  • Maryland offers extra dollars for 7th and 8th graders who need more support

  • San Diego City created more time, mostly within the regular school day, by doubling –even tripling – the amount of instructional time in literacy and mathematics for low-performing students.


Focus on Data Driven Everything: Monitoring and Measuring


Schools that Close the Achievement Gap Use Data to Understand Skill Gaps of Low-Achieving Students

Source: After the Test, Using Data to Close the Achievement Gap, Springboard Schools 2005.

http://www.springboardschools.org/research/other_research.html


What Works? Extensive use of student assessment data.

[P]rincipals from better performing schools more often reported that they and the district use assessment data from multiple sources — curriculum program and other commercial assessments, district-developed assessments, and

the California Standards Tests and the CAT/6 — to evaluate teachers’ practices and to identify teachers who need instructional improvement.

Teachers report receiving CST/CAT-6 test data in a variety of formats: for all students in their grade level; disaggregated by specific skills for all students in their classrooms; and disaggregated by student subgroup for students in their classrooms. Principals report using the CST and CAT/6 data to examine school-wide instructional issues, to develop strategies for moving students from below

basic and basic to proficient, to compare grades within the school, to identify struggling students and evaluate their progress, and to inform and communicate with parents.

Source: Williams, T., Kirst, M., Haertel, E., et al. (2005). Similar Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A large-scale survey of California elementary schools serving low-income students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource. - Initial Report of Findings, see www.edsource.org.


What Works?

  • Administer Common District-wide benchmark or snap-shot assessments, at least every 6-9 weeks.

  • Get the results immediately in the hands of principals, teachers, parents and supplemental instruction providers; and,

  • Create vehicles for teachers to meet together to discuss assignments and student work.


MONITORING AND MEASURING, FREQUENTLY IS KEY.

Source: After the Test, Using Data to Close the Achievement Gap, Springboard Schools 2005.

http://www.springboardschools.org/research/other_research.html


Focus on Fixing: Intervene and Adjust


What Works?

Acting Immediately on Results from Snapshot Assessments

  • When the data suggests individual kids are behind, those kids get immediate help.

  • When the data suggests that ½ or more of the kids in a class are behind, the teacher gets help.

  • No one right way, but high performers have consistent methods to intervene and help ... whoever needs it . . . when they need it.


In the End, We Have to Make Different Choices.

At the Main, Achievement and Opportunity Gaps Come from Choices That Educators and Policymakers Make. Choices About:

- What to Expect of Different Schools and Students.

- How Much to Spend on Whom.

- Choices Even About Who Teachers Whom.

- Choices About How to Organize Classroom and Schools.


February

2006

The Education Trust–West510-465-6444Please Join us for our 2nd Biennial Conference www.edtrustwest.org


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