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Investigations in Number, Data, and Space K-5.

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Investigations in Number, Data, and Space K-5

“In this changing world, those who understand and can do mathematics will have significantly enhanced opportunities and options for shaping their futures. Mathematical competence opens doors to productive futures. A lack of mathematical competence keeps those doors closed….All students should have the opportunity and the support necessary to learn significant mathematics with depth and understanding.”

NCTM (2000, p.50)

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

The 6 Principles

- Equity
- Curriculum
- Teaching
- Learning
- Assessment
- Technology

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Equity

“Excellence in mathematics education

requires equity – high expectations and

strong support for all students.”

(NCTM, 2000, p.12)

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Curriculum

“A curriculum is more than a collection

of activities: it must be coherent,

focused on important mathematics,

and well articulated across the grades.”

(NCTM, 2000, p.14)

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Teaching

“Effective mathematics teaching requires

understanding what students know

and need to learn and then challenging

and supporting them to learn it well.”

(NCTM, 2000, p.16)

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Learning

“Students must learn mathematics with

understanding, actively building new

knowledge from experience and prior

knowledge.”

(NCTM, 2000, p.20)

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Assessment

“Assessment should support the learning

of important mathematics and furnish

useful information to both teachers and

students…Assessment should not merely

be done to students: rather, it should

also be done for students, to guide and

enhance their learning.”

(NCTM, 2000, p.22)

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Technology

“Technology is essential in teaching and

learning mathematics; it influences the

mathematics that is taught and

enhances students’ learning.”

(NCTM, 2000, p.24)

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Standards for Mathematical Practice

“The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education.”(CCSS, 2010)

Underlying Frameworks

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

5 ProcessStandards

- Problem Solving
- Reasoning and Proof
- Communication
- Connections
- Representations

NCTM (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

Strategic Competence

Productive Disposition

Adaptive Reasoning

Procedural Fluency

Underlying FrameworksStrands of Mathematical Proficiency

NRC (2001). Adding It Up. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Strands of Mathematical Proficiency

- Conceptual Understanding– comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations
- Procedural Fluency– skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently, and appropriately
- Strategic Competence– ability to formulate, represent, and solve mathematical problems
- Adaptive Reasoning– capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation, and justification
- Productive Disposition– habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy.

Standards for Mathematical Practice and PARCC

- Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Model with mathematics.
- Use appropriate tools strategically.
- Attend to precision.
- Look for and make use of structure.
- Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Problem-Based or Inquiry Approach

When students explore a problem and the mathematical ideas are later connected to that experience.

It is through inquiry that students are activating their own knowledge and trying to make new knowledge (meaning). This builds conceptual understanding.

Procedural Fluency

Knowledge and use of rules and procedures used in carrying out mathematical processes and also the symbolism used to represent mathematics.

The ineffective practice of teaching procedures in the absence of conceptual understanding results in a lack of retention and increased errors.

Six Components of Mathematics Classrooms

- Creating an environment that offers all students an equal opportunity to learn
- Focusing on a balance of conceptual understanding and procedural fluency
- Ensuring active student engagement in the mathematical practices
- Using technology to enhance understanding
- Incorporating multiple assessments aligned with instructional goals and mathematical practices
- Helping students recognize the power of sound reasoning and mathematical integrity

What Teachers Think

What part(s) of the Investigations program has had a strong impact on student learning?

- Deeper thinking and understanding
- Students show work with pictures, numbers and words
- Students can now decompose numbers
- Mathematical reasoning has improved
- Hands-on learning is motivating
- Students are able to think flexibly
- Closely aligned with the common core state standards
- The program is completely student-centered
- Mental math skills have improved
- Less math concepts in more depth

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