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1.7 The history of Computer Networking and the Internet. 20 minutes of joy with Patric and Andreas. The switching 60’s. Telephone. Telephone network is the dominating communication network Used circuit switching . Computer communication. Short bursts of information

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1 7 the history of computer networking and the internet

1.7 The history of Computer Networking and the Internet

20 minutes of joy with Patric and Andreas



Telephone
Telephone

Telephone network is the dominating communication network

Used circuit switching


Computer communication
Computer communication

  • Shortbursts of information

  • Long inactivity periods

  • Packet switching

    • Moresuitable for this type of communication

    • More robust


Arpanet
ARPAnet

  • Advanced Research Projects Agency at MIT

    • The first packet switchingnetwork

  • IMP (Interface message processor) installed at

    • UCLA

    • UC Santa Barbara

    • Stanford

    • Univ. of Utah



  • 1972:

  • ARPAnet is nowconsistent of 15 nodes

  • The first host-to-hostprotocol

    • NCP (Network Control Protocol) enablesapplications to be written

    • First e-mail program


New networks emerging
New networksemerging…

  • ALOHAnet

    • Enabling communication over microwaves between the Hawaiian Islands.

  • Telenet

    • Commercial packet switching network based on ARPAnet’s technology

  • Cyclades

    • French packet switching network

  • IBM’s SNA

    • ParallelledARPAnet’s work

  • Tymnet, GE Information Services network etc.

    • Time sharing networks


Networks of networks
Networks of networks

DARPA (Defence ARPA) funded the connection of networks

Networks of networksalsocalledinernetting


Protocols
Protocols

  • (early version of) TCP wasused for connecting the networks

  • Forwardingfunctions IP

  • UDP


More protocols
MoreProtocols

  • Ethernet protocol

    • Enablingwiredbasedbroadcastsharingnetworks

    • Laying the foundation for LAN

  • ALOHA Protocol

    • Multiple access protocol



More computer networks
More computer networks

  • BITNET

    • University e-mail and filesharing

  • CSNET

    • Linking researchers without access to the ARPAnet

  • NSFNET

    • Connection to supercomputing centers

    • 56kbps backbone, later 1,5Mbps and serving as the linkingbackbonebetween regional networks


Standardisation
Standardisation

  • TCP/IP replacing NCP as the standard hostprotocol for ARPAnet

  • The late 80’s:

    • Congestioncontrol is added to TCP

    • DNS is invented



Commercialisation
Commercialisation

ARPAnetclosesdown

NSFNET serving as backboneconnecting the regional networks and opening the network for commercialpurposes

In 1995 NSFNET is decomissioned and Internet Service Providers serves as the new backbones in itsplace


Developments
Developments

  • The key components of the web: HTML, HTTP, web server and a webbrowser is developed in the early 90’s

  • 93: webbrowsers with GUI.

  • 95: Web commerce

  • Killerapplications:

    • E-mail

    • The Web

    • IM (ICQ)

    • P2P filesharing (Napster)



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