Topic 2 The World of Plants. Standard Grade Biology. World of Plants is divided into: A- Introducing plants B- Growing plants (Pollination, Fertilisation, Asexual reproduction) C- Making food. The life cycle of a plant. There are 7 stages in the life cycle of a plant.
Standard Grade Biology
World of Plants is divided into:
A- Introducing plants
B- Growing plants (Pollination, Fertilisation, Asexual reproduction)
C- Making food
seed / fruit Formation
Forms a tough protective layer
Embryo – grows into plant
Provides the embryo plant with food.
and label your drawing
Stamen male parts
Collect a cut-out flower, colour it in and put it together.
Sepals- protect the flower when it is a bud
Stamen- anther produces male sex cells (pollen)
Carpel- stigma traps pollen
Style is where pollen tube grows down to female sex cells.
Petals- colourful to attract the insects
Nectaries- give out sugary liquid to attract insects
Carpel- ovary produces female sex cells (ovules)
World of plants workbook
G – pages 34 &35
C- pages 36 & 37
in the air from Feb - Sept
Once fertilisation has taken place the zygote (fertilised ovule)becomes a seed, and the ovary becomes a fruit.
The petals die and fall off.
The plant seeds are in the fruit.
World of Plants Workbook p41
Comparing Lime and Sycamore seeds.
Go through the problem solving activity
Involves 2 parents and sex cells ie. pollen and ovule join to make a new individual.
Tubers are underground food stores which stores food over the winter and provides a new plant with food until it can make its own.
Examples: potato, artichoke, yam, cassava, water chestnut, arrowroot
Food made by the new plant is sent to make new tubers. Thereby reproducing itself.
arrowroot = arrow root = Chinese potato (this name also is used for jicama) = goo = seegoo = arrowhead = Chinese arrowhead = tse goo = ci gu = tsu goo
Notes: The name arrowroot is more commonly associated with a thickener that's made from the plant.
A fresh arrowroot tuber looks like a small onion, only without the layers.
It should be peeled, and then it can be boiled or stir-fried.
Look for it in Chinese markets during the winter.
cassava = casava = manioc = mandioca = tapioca root = yucca = yucca root = yuca root = Brazilian arrowroot Pronunciation: kuh-SAH-vuh
Notes: People in Hispanic countries use cassavas much like Americans use potatoes. There's both a sweet and a bitter variety of cassava. The sweet one can be eaten raw, but the bitter one requires cooking to destroy the harmful prussic acid it contains.
Chinese water chestnut
Notes: Water chestnuts are delightfully sweet and crisp- if you buy them fresh. You need to peel off their brown jackets and simmer them for five minutes before stir-frying.
Tinned Water chestnuts are easily available but not nearly as good. If you use them, blanch them first in boiling water for thirty seconds.
Bulbs are also underground food stores which work in the same way as tubers.
The difference is that bulbs have thick fleshy ‘leaves’.
Examples: snowdrop, crocus, daffodil, iris, lily, hyacinths, amaryllis, onion, garlic.
1. Sept.- Oct. Planting TimeThe tulip bulbs are going to be planted twice as deep as the bulb is high. They have no roots at this stage.
4. Feb. – March Growing PeriodThe bulbs begin to change as the starch, or carbohydrates in them turns to sugar. As this occurs, the leaves and flower gradually push up-wards out of the bulb.
2. November Making RootsThe roots start growing out of the base, establish themselves taking nutrients from the soil. Mother bulbs get ready for winter.
5. April – May Blooming TimeThe tulips are in bloom-they receive their nourishment from the roots-only the brown skin of the bulb remains as all of the energy has gone to the bloom.
6. May – JuneRegenerationAfter flowering the blooms are cut and the leaves are left on the plant. The new daughter-bulbs use the food in the leaves to grow.
7. July - Sept.MultiplyingUp to five small bulbs can be expected to grow out of the mother bulb. They form their roots slowly, and develop their blooms and leaves within the bulb, for next year's plant.
3. Dec. - Jan.Cooling PeriodRest period. In order for bulbs to bloom in the spring they need weeks of at least 5oC. Frost at this time doesn’t harm them.
Runners are side shoots which grow out from the parent plant.
Buds form at points along the runner and eventually these buds form roots and grow into new plants.
Examples: spider plant (Anthericum), strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)
Collect Information Card
Take short notes from it.
World of plants workbook
“Advantages of asexual reproduction”
Read p32 & 33.
Summarising advantages & disadvantages of sexual versus asexual reproduction
A clone is the name given to the genetically identical plants produced from a single parent plant.
They are formed during asexual reproduction only.
People can make use of plants’ ability to reproduce asexually (instead of using seeds) by using methods of artificial propagation such as:
Again this produces genetically identical offspring (clones).
Cuttings are small pieces of stem with some leaves attached, the new plant grows from this.
They can be placed in moist
soil or water (and sometimes
dipped in rooting
A cut stem of one plant (with good flower or fruit growth) (the graft) is taken and firmly attached to the rootstock of another plant (which has a strong, established root system) (the stock).
Examples- roses, fruit trees
Allows you to clone the commercial qualities of a particular fruit variety on another tree. Seed trees have highly variable fruit quality.
They come into production much earlier (2-3 years) than trees grown from seed (5-10 years).
World of Plants Workbook p42
The effect of rooting powder on cuttings
Collect some graph paper and work through the problem solving activity
World of plants workbook p33
“Artificial propagation- commercial advantages”
Read page. Collect Information sheet
Write short notes on it.
Artificial propagation has allowed us to adapt and improve plants for our own use.
Some of the benefits include:
Runners, tubers, bulbs
Spider plant, strawberry
Quick method, producing large numbers of plants, of known quality and specific variety
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