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The Tamil-Sinhala Conflict in Sri Lanka PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Tamil-Sinhala Conflict in Sri Lanka Part Two Table of Contents Effects of the conflict (slides 3-7) Peace process (slides 8-13) What would it take to achieve peace? (slides 14-17) A Short List of Effects Economic development is erratic and slow

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The Tamil-Sinhala Conflict in Sri Lanka

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The tamil sinhala conflict in sri lanka l.jpg

The Tamil-Sinhala Conflict in Sri Lanka

Part Two

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Table of Contents

  • Effects of the conflict (slides 3-7)

  • Peace process (slides 8-13)

  • What would it take to achieve peace? (slides 14-17)

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A Short List of Effects

  • Economic development is erratic and slow

  • Social services for the entire population are inadequately funded

  • The entire population is bitterly divided along possible options to settle the conflict

  • The country is being under threat of becoming subservient to another external power

  • People are alienated and unable to plan a bright future

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The Economic Consequences: an Overview

  • A statistical profile (World Bank Data)

  • GNI per capita:US $1,010 (World Bank, 2005)

  • But the economy has done well in the last five years

  • Is this due to the ceasefire?

  • What was the situation between 1971 and 2000?

    • The country has considerable amount of foreign debts

    • Per capita income has risen slowly

    • Inflation is high

    • The country has not achieved its potential (summary verdict of the World Bank) (full report of the World Bank)

    • The country’s ability to succeed depends on the resolution of its conflict

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Where has the Money Gone?

  • Increased military expenditure has consumed a large share of national income since 1982

  • The spending on health, education and welfare has not increased in proportion to the population growth

  • Infrastructure facilities are inadequate and not properly maintained

  • Tertiary education is restricted by inadequate funds and lack of enough trained lecturers

  • Information is hard to get

    • Here is a case study

    • Here is another study on poverty reduction

      • Part One

      • Part Two

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Retardation of Economic Development

  • Economic development in independent Sri Lanka has been uneven regionally

  • This state of affairs has been accentuated due to various reasons since 1960

  • Unemployment and under-employment are increasing locally

  • There is internal population movement making economic development difficult at local levels

  • Industrialization is progressing very slowly

  • The conflict inflicts a heavy toll on tourism, which is a major income earning industry

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Social Cost of the Conflict

  • Displacement of people

  • A culture of fear and intimidation

  • The lost childhood for a large number of children

    • Fighting children

    • Victimized children

  • Will they ever be normal?

  • Deprivation of education and stable family life

  • Loss of life

  • Funds for the development are diverted elsewhere

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Ceasefire of 2002: Nuts and Bolts

  • February 2002: The ceasefire was arranged by Norway working together with the UNP government (prime minister: Wickramasinghe)

  • March-May 2002: decommissioning of weapons and restoring links with Jaffna

  • September 2002: ban on the LTTE is lifted, exchange of prisoners and the drop of demand for separate state

  • December 2002: peace talks in Norway (share of power and autonomy for north and east)

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Behind the Scene

  • It has been suggested that Norway is actually supporting the LTTE with funds and equipment

  • Norway is not an impartial mediator, to judge by its regular pro-LTTE stance

  • Norway peace monitoring mission has been partial towards the LTTE

  • Norway peace mediators (foreign ministry) have bypassed the Sri Lankan state institutions to initiate peace

    • The executive president (Chandrika Kumaratunga-Bandaranaike) was sidelined

  • A detailed analysis of Norway’s role in Sri Lanka

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Peace Broken

  • The president’s actions brought Norway’s peace mission to a grinding halt

  • April 2004: The SLFP victory at the general election

  • July 2004: first suicide blast in Colombo since 2001

  • December 2004: Tsunami

  • August 2005: Kadiragamar assassinated

  • What do these events mean?

    • The LTTE was not pleased with the fall of UNP

    • Opposed to the SLFP regime

    • Use intimidation to coax the government

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New Political Reality

  • The new coalition government consists of two parties: JVP and SLFP

  • What do they stand for?

    • JVP: extreme nationalist (pro-Sinhala) and has a violent past (since 1971)

      • Constituency

        • JVP: mostly Buddhist Sinhalese

    • SLFP: Sinhalese (and others) and pro-Buddhist but no discrimination on the ground of religion

    • SLFP: centre-left and pro-western with restrain

    • Both oppose separate state for the Tamils

    • Pro devolution of power and autonomy for north within a unitary state

    • Against Norway’s intrusive and biased intervention

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Opposition Party

  • The UNP is publicly supportive of the government, but in fact against its peace plan

  • Constituency profile

    • Mostly Sinhalese and from all religions

    • Pro-western and for unrestrained foreign investment

    • Power elite consists of mostly Christian and rich people

    • Little sympathy for traditional culture

  • Notoriously deficient in vision and the ability to bring people together

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  • The LTTE is unwilling to negotiate with the government

  • The government is unhappy with Norway’s intervention

  • The government is under pressure not to provide more than devolution and autonomy in regional affairs

  • The government is also under pressure to curb killings by paramilitary groups

  • The LTTE is under pressure to stop its violent activity

  • Both parties are under pressure to achieve peace

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  • Proposed solutions

    • Separate states: unacceptable to the Sinhalese and the Muslims

    • A federal state: unacceptable to the majority of people

    • Devolution of power and autonomy in regional affairs within a unitary state: acceptable to the majority of people

  • Why certain options are unacceptable

    • Separation or federal state will not end the conflict

    • A greater Tamil state with Tamilnadu is a possibility

    • It will be a catalyst for India’s brake-up

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What would it Take . . .?

  • A compromise political solution acceptable to all people

  • An equitable share of resources

  • A plan for economic development for the country as a whole

  • Justice to all communities

  • Freedom to move and live anywhere

  • Human rights recognized

  • Curb extremism

  • Charity begins at home

    • Eliminate undue external influence

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  • National building is essential for stability and prosperity of people

  • Education as a means to achieve understanding and cohesion

    • A greater role for English in education

    • A carefully prepared education policy to foster racial harmony

  • Cross-cultural relations have always been cordial except in rare instances

  • They should be used consciously to promote unity

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Grant Them Peace

  • Both parties have walked back from the brink of war

  • Let us hope they will walk along the road to peace

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