Teaching vocabulary meaning through semantic based activities
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Teaching Vocabulary Meaning Through Semantic-Based Activities . Designed by: Brenda Stephenson Mary Helen Gallien. Vocabulary. How do we teach it. ?. Teaching Vocabulary. Definition-Based Approaches Context-Based Approaches Concept-Based Approaches

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Teaching vocabulary meaning through semantic based activities l.jpg

Teaching Vocabulary Meaning Through Semantic-Based Activities

Designed by:

Brenda Stephenson

Mary Helen Gallien


Vocabulary l.jpg
Vocabulary Activities

How

do

we

teach

it

?


Teaching vocabulary l.jpg
Teaching Vocabulary Activities

  • Definition-Based Approaches

  • Context-Based Approaches

  • Concept-Based Approaches

    • Semantic Mapping

      (Schirmer, 2000)


Teaching vocabulary4 l.jpg
Teaching Vocabulary Activities

  • Definition-Based Approaches


Definition based approach l.jpg
Definition-Based Approach Activities

  • Two Forms

    • 1st- Students are asked to look up definitions of a list of words in the dictionary, copy them, and write a sentence for each word.

    • 2nd- The teacher briefly discusses the meaning of new words in an upcoming reading selection.


Definition related technologies l.jpg

Many software programs have dictionaries and other reference tools built into them

There are a variety of CD-based dictionaries including picture dictionaries and sign language dictionaries

Dictionary and ESL websites are another option

Cloze procedure (ex. ClozePro by Crick Software) and other vocabulary software programs (ex. Vocabulary Companion by VISIONS Inc.) can be used to present words in different contexts

There are many programs and websites that allow teachers to create materials using their own word lists related to their curriculum

Definition Related Technologies


Teaching vocabulary7 l.jpg
Teaching Vocabulary tools built into them

  • Definition-Based Approaches

  • Context-Based Approaches

  • Concept-Based Approaches

    • Semantic Mapping

      (Schirmer, 2000)


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Teaching Vocabulary tools built into them

  • Context-Based Approaches


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Context-Based Approach tools built into them

  • Youngsters ultimately need to encounter a word in context to develop a full sense of its meaning (Gipe, 1980; Gipe & Arnold, 1979).

  • Guessing vocabulary from context is the most frequent way to discover the meaning of new words.


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Context-Based Approach tools built into them

  • Students need to be taught to:

    • Look before, at, and after the word.

    • Connect what they know to what the author has written.

    • Predict a possible meaning.

    • Resolve or re-do. Decide if they know enough, should try again, or consult an expert or reference.

      Blachowicz & Fisher (1996)


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Context-Based Strategy Technologies tools built into them

  • There are many commercially available educational software programs that focus on introducing vocabulary within passages (ex. Vocabulary Development by Optimum Resources)

    • Many have pre-test to determine the appropriate level for students

    • Many track student work done so teachers can print reports and keep data on progress

  • Cloze Pro is a program that allows teachers to create Cloze activities


Teaching vocabulary13 l.jpg
Teaching Vocabulary tools built into them

  • Definition-Based Approaches

  • Context-Based Approaches

  • Concept-Based Approaches

    • Semantic Mapping

      (Schirmer, 2000)


Teaching vocabulary14 l.jpg
Teaching Vocabulary tools built into them

  • Concept-Based Approaches


Concept based approach l.jpg
Concept-Based Approach tools built into them

New Knowledge Is Gained…

  • from finding new relationships in old knowledge and

  • from relating new information to old knowledge.

    (Schirmer, 2000)


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Integration Methods tools built into them

  • Semantic Maps

    • organize prior knowledge into formal relations

    • provide a basis for understanding


Semantic mapping l.jpg
Semantic Mapping tools built into them

  • Prereading Activity

    • used to activate prior knowledge

    • used to introduce key vocabulary words

  • Postreading Activity

    • add words, categories, and

      new concepts to the original

      maps to provide understanding


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Semantic Mapping tools built into them

  • Vocabulary development activities should consider how a word fits into a student's semantic repertoire rather than how it is used in a particular context. 

  • Semantically based activities relate the meaning to the child’s world.


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Semantic Mapping tools built into them

  • The teacher writes a word that represents the key concept.

  • The students are asked to think of words that relate to the key word.

  • These words are grouped around the key word in categories.

  • The teacher then presents new words and encourages a discussion about where these words might fit into the map.

    (Duffelmeyer & Banwart, 1993; Heimlich & Pittelman, 1986; Johnson, Pittelman, &Heimlich, 1986)



Concept based strategy technologies l.jpg

There are a variety of semantic mapping software programs, for example Inspiration

The maps can be color-coded, shape-coded, and images can be added to further support students

Visual Thesaurus is a web-based “program” that links related words to each other as a semantic map

Students can click on related words to more clearly understand meaning and relationships among concepts

Concept-Based Strategy Technologies


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Hands on Activity for example Inspiration

  • (Suggestion: Have students create a semantic map here…)

Your turn...


Word maps l.jpg
Word Maps for example Inspiration

  • A vocabulary word map

    • is a visual organizer

    • engages students with new terms

    • helps students to think about new terms or concepts in several ways


Slide25 l.jpg

Antonyms can go here too. for example Inspiration

source: http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/readquest/pdf/wordmap_2.pdf


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We must enhance our students’ knowledge of: for example Inspiration

  • Words with Multiple Meanings

  • Figurative Language

  • Idiomatic Meaning of Words

  • Denotation/Connotation


Multiple meaning video clip l.jpg
Multiple Meaning Video Clip for example Inspiration

  • Word of the Day clip


Multiple meanings l.jpg
Multiple Meanings for example Inspiration

  • Run

    • We will have to run to catch the plane.

    • Does the pepper make your nose run?

    • Don’t let the water run.

    • The river will run into the ocean.

    • I have a run in my hose.

    • She will run for class president.

    • How long will the school play run?

    • He will run his father’s business.

    • We run everyday.


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Multiple Meanings for example Inspiration

  • Made

  • I made my bed.

  • I made money.

  • My brother made me do that.

  • The rain made the grass green.

  • I made a present for you.


Multiple meanings30 l.jpg
Multiple Meanings for example Inspiration

  • Interactive Websites

  • http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/palmasola/ps4mm2.htm

  • http://www.quia.com/cb/29778.html (Jeopardy)

  • Develop presentations (ex. PowerPoint) that have multiple meaning words in context

    • Students can sign the words appropriately based on context or draw illustrations to demonstrate the meaning


  • Figurative language l.jpg
    Figurative Language for example Inspiration

    …those forms of language that result in a non-literal meaning.(Easterbrooks & Baker, 2002)

    • Idiomaticexpressions

      • Chip off the old block.

    • Similes

      • She looks like an angel.

    • Metaphors

      • My brain is a sieve.

    • Personification

      • Mr. Toothbrush wants you to tickle him.


    Idiomatic meanings l.jpg
    Idiomatic Meanings for example Inspiration

    • An idiom is an expression whose meaning is not compositional- that is, whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of the individual words of which it is composed.(Google)

      Interactive Website: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/6720

    • Cut it out

    • - Piece of cake

    • - Hit the hay

    • - Bent out of shape

    • - Kick the bucket


    Denotation connotation l.jpg
    Denotation/Connotation for example Inspiration

    • Denotation (Concrete)- Literal meaning of the word… “dictionary definition.”

    • Connotation (Abstract)- Associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings.

    • Denotative:

    • “any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles having a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical settings.”

    • Connotative:

    • meanings of the word snake could include evil or danger.

    Snake


    The fairview learning program l.jpg
    The Fairview Learning Program for example Inspiration

    • It provides direct access to ASL and opens a window for hearing and deaf people to begin to think and sign bilingually. (Fairview Learning Network)

    • It is currently being used in 42 states

      www.fairviewlearning.net


    The fairview learning program35 l.jpg
    The Fairview Learning Program for example Inspiration

    • The Bridge Lists

      • English phrases requiring ASL translation for understanding.

        ‘Down the street’ requires multiple sign concepts, depending on the context.

        • “A ball was hit down the street”

        • “A man walked down the street.”


    The fairview learning program36 l.jpg
    The Fairview Learning Program for example Inspiration

    • The Bridging Process

      • allows the conceptual signing of phrases, rather than the word for word signing required by most sign codes.

        “Put out the fire.”

        • Word by word, one is literally signing,“Pick up the fire and put it outside.”

        • Bridging provides the visual translation of the phase’s true meaning,“Extinguish the fire.”

          (Fairview Learning Network)


    The fairview learning program37 l.jpg

    Adapted Dolch Words for example Inspiration

    Deaf children

    must see the different meanings in context in order to acquire them.

    The Fairview Learning Program

    • Dolch words:

      • commonly used words

      • found in most basal readers

      • Deaf children and hearing children do not learn Dolch words in the same way

    Most hearing children acquire the

    various meanings effortlessly

    through their sense of hearing.

    (Fairview Learning Network)


    Helpful tips for vocabulary development l.jpg
    Helpful Tips for example Inspiration for Vocabulary Development:

    • Promote Natural Growth in Meaning Vocabulary

    • Promote Lifelong Vocabulary Learning through Indirect Vocabulary Instruction

    • Promote Learning of Specific Words through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

      (Schirmer, 2000)


    Additional technologies to assist with vocabulary development l.jpg
    Additional Technologies to Assist with Vocabulary Development

    • Image-to-Text programs can be used to develop vocabulary study cards or learning activities (ex. Picture It, Signing Exact English Interactive, etc.)

    • Image-to-Text programs can be used to make “rebus” passages with images matched with text (ex. The above and Clicker 5, Writing with Symbols)

      • Many programs have settings for images to be shown or not so phrases rather than individual words can have a picture prompt or after a period of time the image can set not to show for specific words


    Additional technologies to assist with vocabulary development41 l.jpg
    Additional Technologies to Assist with Vocabulary Development

    • Some software programs allow for the development of class or personal digital dictionaries (ex. Wordbar or Clicker 5 by Crick Software)

      • Grids that contain cells with words or phrases are located below the word processing portion of the screen to assist students in selecting appropriate vocabulary

      • Grids can be custom made related to units of study

      • Students can develop their own grids as references for their subject areas

      • Wordbar includes only text and Clicker can contain an image as well as text


    Additional technologies to assist with vocabulary development42 l.jpg
    Additional Technologies to Assist with Vocabulary Development

    • Specialized sign videotapes and DVDs are available for free to deaf individuals and people who work with deaf/hh individuals

      • Captioned Media Program

      • PEPNet

    • These videotapes can help students (and others) learn specialized vocabulary for content and career areas in both sign and English


    Bibliography l.jpg
    Bibliography Development

    Easterbrooks, Susan R. & Baker, Sharon (2002).Language

    Learning in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

    Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

    Schirmer, Barbara, R. (2000).Language and Literacy

    Development in Children Who Are Deaf.Needham Heights, MA:

    Allyn & Bacon

    http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/palmasola/ps4mm2.htm

    http://www.quia.com/cb/29778.html

    http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Aegean/6720

    http://www.fairviewlearning.net/deaf-overview.php


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