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Yoga and Medicine 3 Questions What is Yoga? What is the evidence that Yoga has health benefits? How do I use and prescribe Yoga as a physician? Yoga 5000 years old founded in India The word “Yoga” means “yoke” or “unity” translated from Sanskrit, the classical language of India.

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3 Questions

  • What is Yoga?

  • What is the evidence that Yoga has health benefits?

  • How do I use and prescribe Yoga as a physician?


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Yoga

  • 5000 years old

  • founded in India

  • The word “Yoga” means “yoke” or “unity” translated from Sanskrit, the classical language of India.

  • It also means “discipline” or “effort.”


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Yoga

  • Yoga requires you to make an effort to unify your body and mind.

  • You do this by concentrating your awareness on your physical body through breathing and postures.


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Meditation is part of Yoga

  • Meditation is a technique in which the meditator seeks not only to reach a deep state of relaxation, but to quiet the mind.

  • The mind is a chattering monkey that one tries to make quiet with meditation.



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Types of Yoga the tyranny of our worries.

The approach to Yoga that focuses on postures is called Hatha (haht-hah) Yoga.

  • Ananda

  • Ashthanga

  • Bikram

  • Iyengar

  • Kundalini

  • Sivananda

  • Viniyoga


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Yoga breathing the tyranny of our worries.

  • Abdominal breathing

  • Sends a fax to the brain to relax

  • Close your eyes

  • Put your hand on your belly

  • Imagine …..


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Yoga postures (Asanas) the tyranny of our worries.

  • Asanas are the heart of Hatha Yoga

  • Stretching that maintains and enhances flexibility

  • Many poses are a form of isometric strengthening exercise, which involve the contraction of muscles without moving the joint.

  • Isometric exercise is often used in physical therapy for the rehabilitation of injured joints.


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Meditation techniques the tyranny of our worries.

  • Focused

  • Mantra

  • Walking


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Focused Meditation the tyranny of our worries.

  • is a technique in which you direct your awareness onto something.

    • a picture or statue of a deity

    • a universal principle such as compassion or forgiveness

    • or the syllable OM, the famous Hindu mantra.  


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Mantra meditation the tyranny of our worries.

  • In Sanskrit, the “man” in mantra means “to think,” and “tra” suggests instrumentality.

  • Mantra literally means an instrument of thought.

  • You repeat a word, phrase or sound in order to transcend the constant distractions of the mind.


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Transcendental Meditation (TM) the tyranny of our worries.

  • movement founded by Maharshi Mahesh Yogi of India.


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Beatles the tyranny of our worries.


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Functional Mapping of Meditation the tyranny of our worries.

  • Meditation is a conscious mental process that induces a set of integrated physiologic changes termed the “relaxation response” by Herbert Benson.

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and characterize the brain regions that are active during a simple form of meditation.


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Results the tyranny of our worries.

  • Significant signal increases were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, hippocampus/parahippocampus, temporal lobe, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and pre- and post-central gyri during meditation.

  • This indicates that the practice of meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system.

    • Neuroreport. 2000 May 15;11(7):1581-5. Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. Lazar SW,…, Benson H.



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Question the tyranny of our worries.

  • What is the evidence that Yoga/meditation have health benefits?


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There is good scientific evidence that exercise: the tyranny of our worries.

  • Increases muscle and bone strength

  • Increases lean muscle and decreases body fat

  • Helps control weight

  • Enhances your psychological well-being, reduces depression

  • Reduces symptoms of anxiety and improves your general mood


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Yoga is exercise the tyranny of our worries.

  • Stretching for flexibility

  • Improved Strength

  • Improved Balance


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Evidence for Health Benefits of Yoga the tyranny of our worries.

  • HTN – Relaxation Response

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • Asthma and improved vital capacity

  • Stress reduction to diminish the many conditions caused or made worse by stress.


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Relaxation Response the tyranny of our worries.

  • Herbert Benson, MD

  • founding President of the Mind/Body Medical Institute

  • Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School


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Relaxation Response the tyranny of our worries.

  • Sit comfortably with your eyes closed.

  • Pay attention to your breathing, and repeat a word or phrase or prayer silently to yourself as you exhale.

  • When you notice your mind wandering (It will) just notice it and passively bring your attention back to your breathing.

    • A form of meditation.


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Autonomic NS the tyranny of our worries.

  • Sympathetic NS

  • Parasympathetic NS


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Fight or Flight the tyranny of our worries.

  • Whether you fight or run, your sympathetic nervous system will be on overdrive pumping out nor-epinephrine.

  • What are the physiological effects of this process?

  • Why would you not want this to be a chronic state of existence?


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Fight or Flight the tyranny of our worries.

  • Yoga and meditation decrease this sympathetic tone and reduce feelings of stress and anxiety

  • Many modern health problems are worsened by stress and anxiety

  • Yoga works to decrease sympathetic tone


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Relaxation Response the tyranny of our worries.

  • Significantly greater reductions in psychological distress, anxiety, and perceived stress were found in the experimental group who had learned the relaxation response.

    • The evaluation of a mind/body intervention to reduce psychological distress and perceived stress in college students.

    • Deckro GR, …, Benson H.

    • J Am Coll Health. 2002 May;50(6):281-7.


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Yoga can prevent Seizures the tyranny of our worries.

  • More than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and duration compared with the control groups.

    • Cochrane Database Systematic Rev. 2000;(3)


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Yoga for Poststroke Rehabilitation the tyranny of our worries.

  • A yoga-based exercise program for people with chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

    • Pilot study with four patients

  • Gentle exercise program adapted for people who have had a stroke.

  • Yoga showed some benefit.

    • Bastille JV, Gill-Body KM. Phys Ther. 2004 Jan;84(1):33-48.


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Yoga to improve quality of life of patients with cancer the tyranny of our worries.

  • Persons with breast or prostate cancer were taught to use Yoga.

  • Significant improvements were seen in overall quality of life, symptoms of stress, and sleep quality.

  • Carlson LE, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress … in breast and prostate cancer outpatients.

  • Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 May;29(4):448-74


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Pain in the hands the tyranny of our worries.

  • Evaluation of a yoga based regimen for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hands.

  • The Yoga program was effective in providing relief in hand osteoarthritis.

    Garfinkel MS, et al. J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;21(12):2341-3.


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome the tyranny of our worries.


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome the tyranny of our worries.

  • “Current evidence shows significant short-term benefit from oral steroids, splinting, ultrasound and yoga.”

  • Cochrane review, Issue 1, 2004.

  • Garfinkel, et al. Yoga-Based Intervention for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 1998


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Eczema Story the tyranny of our worries.


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Arthritis the tyranny of our worries.

Allergies

Asthma

Hypertension

Coronary Artery Disease

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Heartburn (GERD)

Constipation

Tension Headaches and Migraines

PMS and Menstrual Discomfort

Menopause

Pain of the Back, Hips, Knees

Depression & Anxiety

Substance Abuse

Skin Disorders

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Overweight

Sleep Problems

Health Conditions in which Yoga may help heal or treat


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Yoga and Meditation to stay healthy the tyranny of our worries.

  • Exercise and relaxation can reduce feelings of stress and keep the body and mind healthy


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Question the tyranny of our worries.

  • How do I use and prescribe Yoga as a physician?


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Treating Back Pain with Yoga the tyranny of our worries.

  • Similarities to PT

    • Williams flexion exercises

    • McKenzie extension exercises

  • Addition of breathing and relaxation


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Yoga and Meditation the tyranny of our worries.

  • As forms of medical treatments do Yoga and Meditation meet standards for being safe and effective?

  • Safer than most medications

    • No adverse effects such as allergic reactions, liver or kidney damage as seen with some medications.


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Safety the tyranny of our worries.

  • Safe from musculoskeletal injuries if you listen to your own body

  • No pain and a lot of gain

  • Avoid postures that you can’t handle

  • Can continue in to older age – 80 year old yoga teacher in San Antonio


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Effective the tyranny of our worries.

  • We have reviewed some studies showing effectiveness for certain conditions

  • More studies are being done

  • People only continue Yoga when they find that it works for them

  • Built in effectiveness meter

  • People often continue medications when they see or feel no benefit and are subject to real side effects

  • Can be free – cost effective


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Yoga and Meditation the tyranny of our worries.

  • Best when they are practiced as part of an overall healthy lifestyle:

    • Good diet

    • Aerobic exercise

    • No smoking

    • Safe drinking

    • Wearing seatbelts


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How to get started the tyranny of our worries.

  • Books - hundreds

  • Videos - many

  • Classes – all over San Antonio

  • http://www.texasyoga.com/directories/san_antonio_yoga.html


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http://www.santosha.com/asanas/index.html the tyranny of our worries.


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Conclusion the tyranny of our worries.

  • Yoga can be valuable to:

    • You

    • Your patients

  • WE can write prescriptions for healthy lifestyles (not just medications)

    • Diet and exercise

    • Smoking cessation

    • Yoga


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