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Physical Education: Important at the Core Study Committee on Childhood Obesity June 18, 2004 Outline Overview of requirements / landscape for physical education Data review (quickly) “Questions You May Be Asked” Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1998

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Physical Education: Important at the Core

Study Committee on Childhood Obesity

June 18, 2004


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Outline

  • Overview of requirements / landscape for physical education

  • Data review (quickly)

  • “Questions You May Be Asked”


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Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1998

(*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman)

Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC


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Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1999

(*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman)

Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC


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Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2000

(*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman)

Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC


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Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2001

(*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman)

Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC


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Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2002

(*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” woman)

Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC


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Daily Physical Education for All Students?

Only:

  • 8% of elementary schools (excluding kindergarten)

  • 6% of middle/junior high schools

  • 6% of senior high schools

    Provide daily PE (or its equivalent*) for entire school year for students.

  • *Elementary schools: 150 minutes / week;

  • secondary schools: 225 minutes / week

Source: CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000


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Percentage of U.S. High School Students Who Attended Physical Education Classes Daily, 1991 - 2001

Source: CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey


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The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 5


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The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 7


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The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 9


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What Do Parents Want? Achievement,

  • 81% of Adults Feel that PE should be mandatory at School*

    * Public Attitudes Toward Physical Education. Are Schools Providing What the Public Wants? A survey conducted by the Opinion Research Corporation International


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What are Other States Doing? Achievement,

  • Illinois - The state requires daily physical education grades K-12.

  • California - Cal. Education Code § 51225.3 requires and funds daily physical activity education and sports programs in primary and secondary schools.

  • Minnesota – Requires Physical Education as a core curriculum K-HS

  • Louisiana - Statute requires that all elementary school students receive a minimum of 30 minutes of quality physical activity daily.


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State of North Carolina Achievement,

  • North Carolina accounts for almost a quarter of the nation's National Board certified teachers - 3,667. The next closest state is Florida with 2,256.

  • Physical Education has 206 total National Board Certified teachers (8 are in Special Needs). NC lead’s the country.


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North Carolina Education Rules and Regulations Achievement,

  • Physical education should be taught each year in grades K – 8. (BEP: SBE & GS)

  • .5 credit of physical education is required for high school graduation (another .5 for HE) to equal 1 unit (150 hrs) to graduate from HS. (SBE)


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Diplomas Achievement,

  • There are four High School Diplomas: Career Prep, College Tech Prep, College/University Prep, and Occupational

  • Health and Physical Education are currently required in all four courses of study.


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Physical Education in Achievement, North Carolina

  • Healthful Living has 12 Standards: 6 are health education and 6 are physical education, each w/ specific focus at each grade level.

  • No state reporting.

  • HPE both are aligned with national standards

  • Healthy Active Children Policy (SBE HSP-S-000)


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RECESS Achievement,

  • We do not have any confirmed data on the amounts of recess that students receive at the Elementary School level.

  • The Healthy Active Children (HAC) policy will share this information with us.


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Healthy Active Children Policy - SBE Policy Achievement,

  • By the end of the 2006-2007 school year, every Local Education Agency (LEA) will have:

    • Health Advisory Councils and

    • Developing Coordinated School Health Programs (CSHP) in every school district.

  • Reporting system.


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Healthy Active Children Policy - SBE Policy Achievement,

  • No child can be kept from recess due to punishment.

  • Shall provide “appropriate amounts” of physical activity - and defines what physical activity means.


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Healthy Active Children Policy - SBE Policy Achievement,

  • Recommended 150 (E) and 225 (S) minutes of PA

  • Addressed physical education and defines what physical education means.

  • Recommends physical education teacher - student ratio to be the same as other classes.


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Basic Education Plan Achievement,

115C - 81 The Basic Education Program : (a1) The BEP shall describe the education program to be offered to every child in the public schools. It shall provide every student in the State equal access to a Basic Education Program. Instruction shall be offered in the areas of arts, communication skills, physical education and personal health and safety, mathematics, media and computer skills, science, second languages, social studies, and vocational and technical education."


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Typical Questions Achievement, You May Be Asked

  • Can’t physical education be provided as part of recess?

  • What are the biggest barriers for schools to provide quality physical education to all students?

  • How much physical education /activity do children and adolescents need?

  • Why do schools have to take responsibility for the physical activity of students?

  • What is the most important thing that this committee can do to increase physical activity among children and adolescents?



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Disclaimer Achievement,

All physical education is not good physical education.


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Quality Physical Achievement, Education Provides:

  • Opportunity to learn

    • Qualified teachers

    • Adequate time

  • Meaningful content

    • National/state standards for physical education

  • Appropriate instruction

  • Formative and summative assessment


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Examples of Quality Physical Education Achievement,

  • All children being active

    • Stations

    • Small group games

    • Technology (pedometers, heart rate monitors)

  • Choices

    • Variety of activities

    • Various practice levels

    • Personal goals

  • Cooperative Activities


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Upon Graduation, A Physically Educated Person: Achievement,

  • HAS learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities

  • IS physically fit

  • DOES participate regularly in physical activity

  • KNOWS the implications of and the benefits from involvement in physical activities

  • VALUES physical activity and its contribution to a healthful lifestyle


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National and NC Standards Achievement,

  • Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities (Physical skills)

  • Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities (Knowledge)

  • Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity. (Physical activity)


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National and NC Standards Achievement,

  • Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of physical fitness(Health-related fitness)

  • Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings (Behavioral skills)

  • Standard 6:Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction (Intrinsic value)


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Physical Activity Achievement, vs. Physical Education

  • Physical activity = behavior

  • Physical education = curricular area that teaches about physical activity. This helps students attain the knowledge and skills of physical education and does not just provide an opportunity for students to be physically active.


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Physical Activity Achievement, vs. Physical Education

  • Students arephysically active in physical education, but students are not(comprehensively) physically educated at recess or through sport participation.

    Can’t physical education be provided as part of recess? No.


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What are the biggest barriers for schools to provide quality physical education to all students?

Unintended consequences of accountability and No Child Left Behind (NCLB).


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FUNDING and TIME physical education to all students?

  • Funding for:

    • HL Coordinators

    • Hiring Certified Physical Education Teachers

    • Facilities

    • Teacher Training

  • Time restrictions - pressures from

    • NCLB

    • Non-funded Mandates


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Unintended Consequence of NCLB in North Carolina physical education to all students?

  • Coaching positions at risk to keep other and “highly qualified teachers.”

  • Physical Education is decreasing in time and increasing in class size.


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Implications of NCLB on Physical Education physical education to all students?

  • NCLB does not list physical education as core, even though it is considered a core academic subject in North Carolina.

  • Physical Educators are teaching reading.

  • General Public does not understand the difference in PE and PA


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Implications of NCLB on Physical Education physical education to all students?

  • Carol M. White Physical Education for Progress (PEP) is listed in NCLB for LEAs or community based organizations to provide leadership towards improving Physical Education and Nutrition.

  • Not every district has someone to apply for the LEA grant.


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Carol M. White Physical Education for Progress (PEP) Grants physical education to all students?

  • 2001

    • Kannapolis City Schools, North Carolina, $199,388

  • 2002

    • Columbus County Schools, $95,627

    • Cumberland County Schools, $182,522

    • Sugar Creek Charter School, Charlotte $104,804

    • Brunswick County Public Schools, $121,923


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Carol M. White Physical Education for Progress (PEP) Grants physical education to all students?

  • 2003

    • Wake County Public School System, $493,024

    • Cherokee County Schools, $277,238

    • New Hanover County Schools, $149,838

    • Alpha Academy Charter School, Fayetteville, $107,532


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NCLB - 21st Century Schools Learning Grants physical education to all students?

  • Twenty-First Centuries grants are available for providing after school and physical activity programs for students.

  • Physical activity is being substituted for physical education and what we teach for lifelong learners.



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Recommended Standards for Amounts of Physical Education adolescents need?

  • Physical Education Recommendation for Schools

    • ES: at least 150 minutes/week

    • MS, HS: at least 225 minutes/week

      • National Association for Physical Education and Sport (NASPE)

      • NC State Board of Education

      • Many others that support the NASPE recommendation (e.g., CDC, NASBE, National Pediatric Association, CCSSO)


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Recommended Standards for Amounts of Physical Activity adolescents need?

  • Physical Activity recommendations for communities (the BIG PICTURE)

    • At least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, a day of physical activity

      • NASPE

      • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Federal government), CDC, Goals 2010



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Why Schools? activity of students?

  • School physical education programs are the one place that:

    • All children can participate in regular physical activity.

    • All children can become physically educated for a lifetime of physical activity.


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Why Schools? activity of students?

  • School physical education programs are the one place that:

    • We teach mind and body for physical, social, and emotional

    • Have opportunity with professional to develop skills and learn appropriate information.


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Why Schools? activity of students?

Physical Activity:

  • Balances Serotonin

    • too much - depressed

    • not enough - chaos

      Exercise and diet are a natural way to balance serotonin.


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Why Schools? activity of students?

Physical Activity:

  • Elevates endorphins

    • The feel good chemical

      Exercise and diet are a natural way to elevate endorphins.


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Why Schools? activity of students?

Physical Activity:

  • Elevates cortosol - Stress control

    • When stress takes over it blocks learning to the Brain stem - the highway to the brain.

    • Cortosol helps control the stress

      Exercise and diet are a natural way to elevate cortosol.


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Why Schools? activity of students?

Physical Education:

  • Cross midline -

    • Increase blood flow to brain

    • Hand- eye coordination -

    • Increase brain alertness

      Juggling, throwing, skipping is a great way to cross the midline.


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Why Schools? activity of students?

Physical Education:

  • Lateral movements -

    • Assists in accurately reproducing shapes

    • Assists in accurately reproducing numbers

    • Assists in accurately reproducing letters

      Team and dual sports are a great way to practice lateral movements.


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What is the most important thing that this committee can do to increase physical activity among children and adolescents?


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Develop a long term and short term plan. to increase physical activity among children and adolescents?


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Questions to Consider for Indicating Quality Physical Education Classes

  • Is the teacher - student ratio consistent in Physical Education with those of other classrooms?

  • Are facilities adequate to implement the physical education curriculum?

  • Is physical education taught by a certified physical education teacher?


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Questions to Consider Education Classes

  • Are public schools offering daily opportunities for structured/unstructured physical activity, commonly referred to as recess, for all students pre-K through grade five?

  • Is recess in addition to physical education class time and not be a substitute for physical education?


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Questions to Consider Education Classes

  • Do school staff withhold participation in recess from students or cancel recess to make up for missed instructional time?

  • Does school staff use physical activity as punishment?

  • Do school provide opportunities for some type of physical activity for students in grades seven through twelve apart from physical education class and organized sports?


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Questions to Consider Education Classes

  • Are schools provided with proper equipment and a safe area designated for supervised recess, physical activity and physical education or ALL students?

  • Are teachers licensed in PE currently maintaining their licenses by taking appropriate renewal credits?


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Physical Education: Important at the Core Education Classes

  • Long Term: Develop a Comprehensive Statewide Plan to include:

    • Facilities

    • Resources

    • Personnel

    • Appropriate standards

    • Guidelines and

    • Funding

      That could be incrementally and sequentially implemented to provide Quality Physical education for all NC Students.


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Comprehensive Education ClassesStatewide Plan

  • To possibly include:

    • Revive the General Statute for funding Healthful Living Coordinators in each LEA to oversee HAC policy and local/state obesity issues.

    • Screen BMI for accountability.


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Comprehensive Education ClassesStatewide Plan

  • To possibly include:

    • End of Grade Testing or other evaluation such as physical fitness testing be reported to SBE or Governors office.

    • Incorporate the Healthy Active children policy into the Legislative School Improvement plans so that health will be a concern in schools.


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Thank you! Education Classes

Kymm Ballard, MA

NC Department of Public Instruction

Physical Education Consultant

[email protected]

919-807-3858 (W)


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