ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR. ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR. “Organisation Behaviour is concerned with the study of what people do in an organisation and how that behaviour affects the performance of the organisation.” (Robbins: 1998,9). ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR.
“Organisation Behaviour is concerned with the study of what people do in an organisation and how that behaviour affects the performance of the organisation.”
The study of Organisational Behaviour involves:
Interrelated dimensions influencing behaviour:
Theory provides a sound basis for action BUT
if the action is to be effective the theory must
be adequate and appropriate to the task and
to improved organisational performance.
In theory, theory and practice are the same.
In practice, theory and practice are different.
From “LEADERSHIP ... with a human touch”
20 October 1998
“The extent to which the organisation’s work is separated into different jobs to be done by different people.”
(Moorhead and Griffin:1998,448)
Product or service
Nature of the work performed
Common time scales
Customer or people to be servedDIVISION OF LABOUR
Efficient use of labour
Reduced training costs
Increased standardisation and uniformity of output
Increased expertise from repetition of tasks
Routine, repetitive jobs
Reduced job satisfaction
Decreased worker involvement and commitment
Increased worker alienation
Possible incompatibility with computerised manufacturing technologiesDIVISION OF LABOUR
Decisions on division of work should take
Mintzberg’s five basic elements of structure which
Serve as co-ordinating mechanisms for the work of
2. Direct Supervision
3. Standardisation of Work Processes
4. Standardisation of Work Output
5. Standardisation of Worker Skills
ADVANTAGES OF CENTRALISATION
ARGUMENTS AGAINST CENTRALISATION
ADVANTAGES OF DECENTRALISATION
Tends to be easier to implement in private sector
organisations rather than the public sector -
accountability, regularity, uniformity.
Six key elements to be addressed when designing
Max Weber – most
prominent of the three.
Weber proposed a bureaucratic form of structure that he believed would work for all organisations.
Embraced logic, rationality, efficiency.CLASSICAL APPROACH
Formal Rules and Regulations
Criticisms of Bureaucracy
Lack of attention to the informal organisation.
Restriction of psychological growth
Bureaucratic dysfunctionCLASSICAL APPROACH
Emphasis on obtaining increased productivity from
individual workers through the technical structuring of
the work organisation and the provision of monetary
incentives as the motivator for higher levels of output.
Major Contributor - FW TAYLOR (1856 - 1917) - held
the view that there was a best working method by which
people should undertake their jobs.
REACTIONS AGAINST SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
Four Main Phases to the Hawthorne Experiments
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS
General ExamplesNEEDSOrganisational Examples
Achievement SELF-ACTUALISATION Challenging Job
Status ESTEEM Job Title
Friendship BELONGINGNESS Friends in the Work
Stability SECURITY Pension Plan
Sustenance PHYSIOLOGICAL Base Salary
HERZBERG isolated two different sets of factors affecting
motivation and satisfaction at work.
1. Hygiene or Maintenance Factors - concerned basically with job environment. Extrinsic to the work itself.
2. Motivators or Growth Factors - concerned with job content. Intrinsic to the work itself.
Goal of managers is to achieve a state of no dissatisfaction by
addressing Hygiene Factors. Task of improving motivation is
then by addressing the Motivators.
McGREGOR argued that the style of Management adopted is a
function of the manager’s attitudes towards human nature and
behaviour at work.
He put forward two suppositions called Theory X and Theory Y which
are based on popular assumptions about work and people.
THEORY X ASSUMPTIONS
THEORY Y ASSUMPTIONS