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Computer Confluence 6/e © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Software Basics: The Ghost in the Machine © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Objectives Describe three fundamental categories of software and their relationship

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Computer confluence 6 e l.jpg

Computer Confluence 6/e

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e

Chapter 4

Software Basics: The Ghost in the Machine

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/eChapter 4Objectives

Describe three fundamental categories of software and their relationship

Explain the relationship of algorithms to software

Discuss the factors that make a computer application a useful tool

Describe the role of the operating system in a modern computer system

Outline the evolution of user interfaces from early machine-language programming to futuristic virtual-reality interfaces

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Linus Torvalds and the Software Nobody Owns

Linus Torvalds

Best known as the Linux creator

The Linux operating system is the best-known example of open source software

Today Linux powers Web servers, film and animation workstations, scientific supercomputers, and a handful of handhelds

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Linus Torvalds and the Software Nobody Owns

The three major categories of software:

Compilers and other translator programs: enable programmers to create other software

Software applications: serve as productivity tools to help computer users solve problems

System software: coordinates hardware operations and does behind-the-scenes work the computer user seldom sees

OS vs. Application software

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Processing with Programs

Food for Thought

The hardware in a computer system is equipped to produce whatever output a user requests

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Processing with Programs

A Fast, Stupid Machine

Programmers begin with an algorithm: a set of step-by-step instructions

Written in a natural language, e.g., English

Ambiguous, error-prone generalities

Translated into the vocabulary of a programming language

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Processing with Programs

The programmer, like the poet, works only slightly removed from pure thought-stuff. He builds castles in the air, creating by exertion of the imagination. Yet the program construct, unlike the poet’s words, is real in the sense that it moves and works, producing visible outputs separate from the construct itself.

—Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., in

The Mythical Man Month

The Language of Computers

Machine Language: numeric codes that represent data

High-level language: falls between machine language and natural human language

Compilers translate high-level language into machine language

Natural Languages: resemble languages spoken by humans

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Software Applications: Tools for Users

ConsumerApplications

Many software companies have replaced their printed documentation with:

Tutorials

Reference materials

Help files

On-line help

Upgrading: users can upgrade a program to the new version by paying an upgrade fee to the software manufacturer

Newer releases often have additional features and fewer bugs

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Software Applications: Tools for Users

Compatibility

Allows software to function properly with the hardware, operating system, and peripherals

Programs written for one type of computer system may not work on another

Disclaimers

Software manufacturers limit their liability for software problems by selling software “as is”

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Software Applications: Tools for Users

Licensing: commercial software is copyrighted so it can’t be legally duplicated for distribution to others

Software license

Volume licenses

Distribution: software is distributed via

Direct sale

Retail stores

Mail-order catalogs

Web sites

Not all software is copyrighted

Public domain software

Shareware

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Software Applications: Tools for Users

Why We Use Applications: most successful software products share two important characteristics:

They are built around visual metaphors of real-world tools

They extend human capabilities in some way

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4Integrated Applications and Suites: Software Bundles

Integrated software packages:

Include several applications designed to work well together

Enable automatic transfer of data between modules

Cost less than buying the applications individually

Use the same type of commands in each module

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4Integrated Applications and Suites: Software Bundles

Popular integrated packages, like AppleWorks and Microsoft Works, generally include:

Word processing

Database

Spreadsheet

Graphics

Telecommunication

Personal information management (PIM) modules

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4Integrated Applications and Suites: Software Bundles

Application suites: bundles containing several full application programs that are also sold as separate programs

The core applications of the Microsoft Office System (the most popular application suite) include:

Word (a word processing program)

Excel (a spreadsheet program)

PowerPoint (a presentation graphics program)

Access (a database program)

Outlook (an email/personal-information management program)

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4Integrated Applications and Suites: Software Bundles

Vertical-Market and Custom Software

Tends to cost far more thanmass-market applications

Job-specific software:

Medical billings

Library cataloging

Legal reference software

Restaurant management

Single-client software needs

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Originally, operating systems were envisioned as a way to handle one of the most complex input/output operations: communicating with a variety of disk drives. But, the operating system quickly evolved into an all-encompassing bridge between your PC and the software you run on it.

—Ron White, in How Computers Work

Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection

What the Operating System Does

System software

A class of software that includes the operating system and utility programs, handles these details, and hundreds of other tasks behind the scenes

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection

Operating system functions:

Communicating with peripherals

Coordinating concurrent processing of jobs

Memory management

Resource monitoring, accounting, and security

Program and data management

Coordinating network communications

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection

Utility Programs and Device Drivers

Utility programs

Serve as tools for doing system maintenance and repairs that aren’t automatically handled by the operating system

Make it easier for users to:

Copy files between storage devices

Repair damaged data files

Translate files so that different programs can read them

Guard against viruses and other potentially harmful programs (as described in the chapter on computer security and risks)

Compress files so they take up less disk space

Perform other important, if unexciting, tasks

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection

Symantec Norton Utilities is a popular utility package that includes software tools for recovering damaged files, repairing damaged disks, and improving disk performance

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection

Device drivers

Small programs that enable I/O devices—keyboard, mouse, printer, and others—to communicate with the computer

Included with the operating system or bundled with peripherals

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection

  • Where the Operating System Lives

    • Some computers store their operating system in ROM

    • Others include only part of it in ROM

      • The remainder of the operating system is loaded into memory in a process called booting, which occurs when you turn on the computer

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection

  • Most of the time it works behind the scenes

  • Interacting with the operating system, like interacting with an application, can be intuitive or challenging and it depends on something called the user interface

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

User interface

The look and feel of the computing experience from a human point of view

Desktop Operating Systems

MS-DOS is a disk operating system in which the user interacts using characters

Letters

Numbers

Symbols

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Features include:

Command-line interface (commands are typed)

Menu-driven interface (commands are chosen from on-screen lists)

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Graphical User Interfaces

Mac OS

This is a disk operating system in which the user interacts with the computer by using a pointing device (e.g., a mouse)

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Microsoft Windows

Originally, Microsoft Windows (commonly called Windows) was a type of program, known as a shell, which put a graphical face on MS-DOS

With the introduction of Windows 95 in 1995, Microsoft began transitioning Windows from an operating system shell into a full operating system that seldom showed its MS-DOS roots

The latest Windows versions have no ties at all to the DOS past

The Windows XP GUI

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

File Management: Where’s My Stuff?

Files can be scattered all over the system, which often makes data management difficult

One solution to this problem is to organize data files logically

Both Windows and the Mac support the notion of common system folders with self-explanatory names:

My Documents (Documents)

My Pictures (Pictures)

My Music (Music)

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Multiple User Operating Systems: UNIX and Linux

UNIX was developed at Bell Labs before personal computers were available

Linux was created by Linus Torvalds and continues to be a work-in-progress

Allow a timesharing computer to communicate with several other computers or terminals at once

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Linux is free for anyone to use or improve

UNIX remains the dominant operating system for Internet servers

Some form of UNIX is available for personal computers, workstations, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Windows XP

Windows Sever 2003

Windows ME

Windows 2000Microsoft Windows CE .NET

Palm OS

Mac OS X (10).

Mac OS 9

Linux, Sun Solaris, and other UNIX variations

Hardware and Software Platforms

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Cross-platform applications, such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop

Programs that are available in similar versions for multiple platforms

Mac users can buy software emulation programs that:

Create a simulated Windows machine in the Mac

Translate all Windows-related instructions Mac equivalents

Future applications may be more tied to networks than to desktop computer platforms

Microsoft .NET strategy

Java, a platform-neutral computer language developed by Sun Microsystems for use on multiplatform networks

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4 Rules of Thumb: Green Computing

Tips to choose and use computer hardware and software in an environmentally responsible way:

Buy green equipment

Use a notebook

Take advantage of energy-saving features

Turn it off when you’re away

Save energy, not screens

Print only once

Recycle your waste products

Pass it on

Send bits, not atoms

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/eChapter 4 The User Interface: The Human–Machine Connection

Tomorrow’s User Interfaces: future user interfaces will be built around emerging development technologies such as:

The end of applications

Natural-language interfaces

Agents

Virtual realities

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Our goal was bug-free. The new goal is resiliency.

—Bob Frankston, in Beyond Calculation

Computer Confluence 6/eChapter 4 Inventing the Future Tomorrow’s Evolving Applications and Interfaces

WIMP (windows, icons, menus, and pointing devices) interface

Easier to learn and use than earlier character-based interfaces

SILK interface incorporates many important emerging user interface software technologies:

Speech and language

Image

Knowledge

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/eChapter 4Lesson Summary

This chapter provides some general answers to the “What is software” question, along with details about each of the three major categories of software:

Compilers and other translator programs, which enable programmers to create other software

Software applications, which serve as productivity tools to help computer users solve problems

System software, which coordinates hardware operations and does behind-the-scenes work the computer user seldom sees

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Computer Confluence 6/e Chapter 4Lesson Summary (continued)

Offers tips to choose and use the best environmental computer hardware and software

Introduces emerging technologies that offer promise for future improved Applications and Interfaces

© 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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