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Lecture 42 of 42 Term Project Report Guidelines and Final Exam Review Wednesday, 03 May 2006 William H. Hsu Department of Computing and Information Sciences, KSU http://www.kddresearch.org http://www.cis.ksu.edu/~bhsu Readings: Sections 12.6-12.10, Foley et al

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Lecture 42 of 42

Term Project Report Guidelines

and Final Exam Review

Wednesday, 03 May 2006

William H. Hsu

Department of Computing and Information Sciences, KSU

http://www.kddresearch.org

http://www.cis.ksu.edu/~bhsu

Readings:

Sections 12.6-12.10, Foley et al

(Reference) 10.15-10.17 Hearn and Baker 2e

Slide Set 5, VanDam (8b, 11/09/1999)


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Lecture Outline

  • Readings

    • Sections 12.6-12.10, Foley et al

    • Outside reading (optional): 10.15-10.17 Hearn and Baker 2e

    • Outside reading (required): Slide Set 8b, VanDam (11/09/1999)

  • Last Time

    • Overview: data structures

    • Boolean set operations (12.2 FVD), primitive instancing (12.3 FVD), sweeps (12.4 FVD), boundary representations (B-reps, 12.5 FVD)

  • Today

    • Spatial partitioning representations

      • Cell decomposition

      • (Planar and) Spatial occupancy: pixel, voxel

      • Hierarchical spatial occupancy: quadtrees, octrees; algorithms

    • Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) trees

    • Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)

  • Next Class: Color Models; Visible Surface Determination (Intro)


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Terminology

  • Modeling Solid Objects

    • Data structures

      • Boundary representations (akaB-reps): describe solid in terms of surfaces

      • Spatial partitioning representations: describe solid in terms of subparts

    • Basic algorithms

      • Construction (aka composition): form new structure by composing primitives

      • Intersection: compute intersection point (if any) with ray, line, other structure

      • Point classification: tell whether query point lies inside or outside

  • Spatial Partitioning

    • Cell decomposition: breaking complex object up into primitive cells

    • Planar and spatial occupancy

      • Voxel: volumetric unit (typically cubic, resulting in cuberille)

      • Hierarchical: variable-granularity decomposition, e.g., quadtrees and octrees

    • Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) tree: break space up into half-spaces

    • Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG): combine primitives using Boolean set operators and modify them using (unary) transformation operations


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Summary Points

  • Solid Modeling: Overview

    • Data structures

      • Boundary representations (B-reps): last time

      • Spatial partitioning representations: today

    • Algorithms

      • Construction (composition)

      • Intersection, point classification

    • Know: difference between B-reps and spatial partitioning; pros and cons

  • Spatial Partitioning (Review Guide)

    • Cell decomposition – know how to obtain for composite object (simple primitives)

    • Planar and spatial occupancy

      • Simple: uniform subdivision (grid / pixel, volumetric / voxel)

      • Hierarchical: quadtrees and octrees – know how to obtain for 2D, 3D scenes

    • Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) trees – know how to obtain for simple 2D object

    • Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) – know typical primitives, how to combine

  • Next Class: Color Models; Visible Surface Data Structures


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Lecture Outline

  • Course Information: Format, Exams, Resources, Assignments, Grading

  • Overview

    • Topics covered

    • What is computer graphics?

    • Applications

  • Brief Tour of Computer Graphics

    • A case study and some demos

    • Survey of rendering and animation systems

    • Applications to computer-aided design (CAD), manufacturing (CAM), and engineering (CAE)

  • Brief Tour of Visualization Systems

    • Information, data, and scientific visualization

    • Focus on informational graphics


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Course Information and Administrivia

  • Instructor: William H. Hsu

    • E-mail: [email protected]

    • Phone: (785) 532-6350 (office), (785) 539-7180 (home)

    • Office hours: before class; by appointment

  • Grading

    • Assignments (6): 25%, reviews (4): 5%, class participation: 10%, midterm: 15%, final: 25%, project: 25%

    • Lowest homework score and lowest paper review score dropped

  • Homework

    • Six (6) assignments: programming (2), written (2), application (2)

    • Late policy: due on Fridays; -10% credit per day after due date

    • Cheating: don’t do it; see introductory handout for policy

  • Project Option

    • 3-hour project option for graduate students (CIS 690, 798, 890)

    • Term paper or semester research project

    • Sign up by February 11, 2005 if interested (see class web page)


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Class Resources

  • Web Page (Required)

    • http://www.kddresearch.org/Courses/Spring-2005/CIS736

    • Lecture notes (MS PowerPoint 97/2000/XP, Portable Document Format)

    • Homeworks (MS Word 97/2000/XP, HTML)

    • Exam and homework solutions (MS Word 97/2000/XP, PDF)

    • Class announcements (students responsibility to follow) and grade postings

  • Course Notes at Copy Center (Required)

  • Class Web Board (Required)

    • http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ksu-cis736-spring2005

    • Login: Students; password: announced in class

    • Research announcements (seminars, conferences, calls for papers)

    • Discussions (instructor and other students)

  • Mailing List (Automatic)

    • [email protected]

    • Sign-up sheet (course roster)

    • Reminders, related research, job announcements


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Course Overview

  • Graphics Systems and Techniques

    • 2-D, 3-D models: curves, surfaces, visible surface identification, illumination

    • Photorealistic rendering and animation: shading models, ray tracing, radiosity

    • Special topics: fractals, information visualization

  • Operations

    • Surface modeling, mapping

    • Pipelines for display, transformation, illumination, animation

  • Computer Graphics (CG): Duality with Computer Vision

  • Visualization and User Interfaces

    • Display optimization: hardware, libraries, GUI design

    • Techniques for quantitative information, objects, processes

    • Survey of statistical, data, information, and scientific visualization

  • Applications

    • CAD/CAM/CAE: object transformations, surface/solid modeling, animation

    • Entertainment: 3-D games, photorealistic animation, etc.

    • Analysis: info visualization, decision support systems, intelligent displays


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Why Computer Graphics?

  • Developing Computational Capability

    • Rendering: synthesizing realistic-looking, useful, or interesting images

    • Animation: creating visual impression of motion

    • Image processing: analyzing, transforming, displaying images efficiently

  • Better Understanding of Data, Objects, Processes through Visualization

    • Visual summarization, description, manipulation

    • Virtual environments (VR), visual monitoring, interactivity

    • Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII): training, tutoring, analysis, control systems

  • Time is Right

    • Recent progress in algorithms and theory

    • Rapidly emergence of new I/O (display and data acquisition) technologies

    • Available computational power, improving price-performance-ratio of hardware

    • Growth and interest of graphics industries (e.g., information visualization, entertainment CAD)


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Front-End

(Geometry Processing)

Graphics

Database

Back-End

(Rasterization)

Display

Traversal

Modeling

Transformation

Viewing

Operation

  • Visible-Surface

  • Determination

  • Scan Conversion

  • Shading /

  • Illumination

Image Synthesis Pipeline

Graphics

Database

Editing

Image


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HypermediaUser Interfaces

  • Hypermedia

    • Database format (similar to hypertext) that provides display-based access to (internetworked) multimedia (text, image, audio, video, etc.) documents

    • Chimera: http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/chimera/

  • Virtual Environments

    • Immersion: interactive training, tutoring systems

    • Entertainment hypermedia

  • Visualization and Computer-Aided Design and Engineering (CAD/CAE)

    • Visualization: scientific, data/information, statistics

    • User interfaces for CAD/CAE/CAM/CASE: http://www.isii.com

NCSA D2K:

http://d2k.ncsa.uiuc.edu

Visual programming system for high-performance knowledge discovery in databases (KDD)


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Relevant Disciplines

  • Analytic Geometry

  • Art and Graphic Design

  • Cognitive Science

  • Computer Engineering

  • Engineering Design

  • Education

  • Film

  • Human Factors

  • Linear Algebra

  • Numerical Analysis

Rendering Hardware

VR Systems

Portable/Embedded CG

CAD

CAE / CASE

CAM

Immersive Training

Tutoring Interfaces

Color/Optical Models

CG/Vision Duality

Interface Design

Computer

Graphics

(CG)

Layout

CG Design

Visualization

Parametric Equations

Conics

Polygon Rendering

Surface Modeling

Physically-Based Modeling

Stat/Info Visualization

Transformations

Change of Coordinate Systems

User Modeling

Ergonomic Interfaces, I/O

Animation

Large-Scale CG


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1

2

3

4

5

8

7

6

Curve and Surface Modelingin Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Lakes/2057/nurbs.html


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http://www.aliaswavefront.com

http://www.discreet.com

PhotorealisticIllumination Models

http://www.pixar.com


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Fractal Systems

http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/fractals.htm


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Visible Decisions SeeIT (http://www.vdi.com)

Information Visualization


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Determine Objectives of

Graphics System

Control

Interface

Decision

Support

Entertainment

Education

Determine

Display Objective

Interactively

Analyze

Data / Documents

Visualize Physical

Objects

Monitor

Process

Determine Representations

In Graphics Database

Solid Geometric

Model

Wireframe /

Polygon Mesh

Fractal

System

NURBS

Determine and Implement

Rendering Pipeline

Radiosity and

Polygon Shading

Shaded-Polygon

Rendering

Ray Tracing

Design Choices and Issuesin Computer Graphics

Completed Design


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Math Review

  • Overview: First Two Weeks

    • Review of mathematical foundations of CG: analytic geometry, linear algebra

    • Line and polygon rendering

    • Matrix transformations

    • Graphical interfaces

  • Line and Polygon Rendering

    • Basic line drawing and 2-D clipping

    • Bresenham’s algorithm

    • Follow-up: 3-D clipping, z-buffering (painter’s algorithm)

  • Matrix Transformations

    • Application of linear transformations to rendering

    • Basic operations: translation, rotation, scaling, shearing

    • Follow-up: review of standard graphics libraries (e.g., OpenGL)

  • Graphical Interfaces

    • Brief overview

    • Survey of windowing environments (MFC, Java AWT)


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6500 news stories

from the WWW

in 1997

Cartia ThemeScapes –http://www.cartia.com

iWing – http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/3925/

Entertainment CGA

Hypermedia and Statistical Visualization

Destroyed

Normal

Extinguished

Ignited

Fire Alarm

Engulfed

Flooding

Virtual Environments for

Immersive Training

DC-ARM – http://www-kbs.ai.uiuc.edu

Interesting Industrial Applications


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