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Indian Gaming in the US A Broad Introduction (Preface to the Triptych Case Studies ) By Shalin Hai -Jew Context Hundreds of years of misdirected federal policies towards Native Americans

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Indian Gaming in the US

Indian Gaming in the US

A Broad Introduction

(Preface to the Triptych Case Studies)

By Shalin Hai-Jew


Context

  • Hundreds of years of misdirected federal policies towards Native Americans

  • Low socioeconomic status (SES), high poverty rates, and low health and other indicators of well being for Native Americans

Indian Gaming in the US


Tribal Sovereignty

  • the “central legitimating issue” for Indian gaming (Elinson, Jan. 19, 2007, n.p.)

  • “a matter not only of sensitivity and legal nuance” but also “the crux of dispute” related to Indian gaming (Elinson, Jan. 19, 2007, n.p.)

  • also labeled “dual sovereignty” (Fenelon, Nov. 2006, p. 382)

Indian Gaming in the US


Push for Native American Self Sufficiency

  • Native American Government:Reservation infrastructure building

  • Economic partnerships, entrepreneurial endeavors and fund-raising

  • Revitalizing tribal governance

  • Reconnecting with traditional cultures and languages

  • Jobs creation

  • Image recreation

  • US Government:Fewer transfer payments, more tax revenues

Indian Gaming in the US


“Indian Gaming”

  • “gaming conducted by an ‘Indian tribe’ on ‘Indian lands’” (Light and Rand, 2005, p. 3)

Indian Gaming in the US


Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (1988)

Tribes…

  • must establish their own gaming regulatory systems;

  • must solely own Indian casinos;

  • must use net revenues for restricted purposes…

Indian Gaming in the US


Restricted Expenditures from Tribal Gaming

  • (i)to fund tribal government operations or programs;

  • (ii)to provide for the general welfare of the Indian tribe and its members;

  • (iii)to promote tribal economic development;

  • (iv)to donate to charitable organizations;

  • (v) or to help fund operations of local government agencies.

Indian Gaming in the US


Detractors

  • Some corporate casinos

  • Some religious groups

  • Some political groups

  • Some Native tribes and “traditionalists”

Indian Gaming in the US


Economic Challenges

  • No new wealth creation

  • Less taxation for state coffers

  • Self-contained benefits to Indian casinos with little to no “spillover” benefits

  • Undue infrastructure and public services burden on the local community

Indian Gaming in the US


Economic Challenges (cont.)

  • High “opportunity costs” for the tribe

  • Unfair support for a particular segment of society

  • A recycling of tribal moneys only

  • A rise in crime

Indian Gaming in the US


Tribal Relationships / Native American Cultures Challenges

  • Inter-tribal strife and competition

  • Misuse of sacred lands

  • Gaming is counter-cultural

  • Unintended social changes towards more individualism, more focus on materialism, and more cultural decay Conflict with Native American lifestyles

Indian Gaming in the US


Ethical and / or Moral EffectsChallenges

  • Promotion of problem gambling

  • Buying political power

  • Image changing for Native Americans

  • A compromising of Indian nationhood and sovereignty

  • Mainstream economic assimilation

Indian Gaming in the US


Timeline for Native Gaming

Indian Gaming in the US


Statistics Today

  • 567 federally recognized Indian tribes in the US

  • 4.1 million Americans with American Indian ancestry (1.5% of the nation’s population)

  • 65% of Indian tribes in lower 48 use Indian gaming for government revenue

Indian Gaming in the US


Statistics Today (cont.)

  • $22.6 billion generated by Indian gaming in 2005

Indian Gaming in the US


Three Case Study Approaches

  • THE ECONOMICS FRAME: “All in? Economic Factors to Consider in Native Gaming”

  • THE SOCIAL – CULTURAL FRAME: “Smallpox or New Buffalo: What’s the Right Analogy for Native Gaming?”

  • THE POLITICAL FRAME: “Setting the Rules for Native Gaming”

Indian Gaming in the US


Using Frames to Study Indian Gaming

Indian Gaming in the US


Conclusion

Indian Gaming in the US


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