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How to Revive an Old Computer Howard Fosdick (C) 2008 FCI V 1.0 hfosdick at the domain compuserve.com Who Am I ? * Independent Consultant * Oracle DBA (not a PC specialist) * Founded Database User Groups (IDUG and MWDUG) * Author of Rexx Programmers Reference Geek !

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How to Revive

an Old Computer

Howard Fosdick

(C) 2008 FCI

V 1.0


Slide2 l.jpg

hfosdickat the domaincompuserve.com

Who Am I ?

* Independent Consultant

* Oracle DBA (not a PC specialist)

* Founded Database User Groups (IDUG and MWDUG)

* Author of Rexx Programmers Reference


Slide3 l.jpg

Geek !

Why This Talk ?

My hobby --

1. Get PC donations

2. Hardware (verify / rebuild / fix)

3. Software (verify / anonymize / install)

4. Give away to someone who needs it


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Topics

1. How to revitalize

an old computer

2. Implications --

What it all means


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I. What can old computers do

II. Hardware

III. Steps to revitalize an old PC

IV. Windows

V. Linux (and other free Oss)

VI. Where to get a Free computer

(and where to donate one)

VII. “Free Computing”

VIII. Resources

Outline


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I. What Can Old

Computers Do ?


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?

?

?

?

Why Older Computers ?

Free

Useful

Fun

* “Old” computers improve capabilities yearly

* Save the planet --> reduce e-waste

* Appropriate technology -- is not always the latest technology

Example -- P-II laptop giving this presentation


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Save the Planet

-- PCs and monitors contain toxic...

-- lead -- mercury -- bromine

-- cadmium -- chlorine -- nbd plastics

-- 400 to 600 million PCs yet to be disposed of in attics

-- Avg PC lifespan < 3 years

One solution -- use them !

Sources:

Galt Global Review

webofcreation.org


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What Can You Do With an Old PC ?

Caveat: end user

running common

software

I II III IV +

  • Word Processing

  • Spreadsheet

  • Presentation Graphics

  • Graphics, images

  • Web surfing

  • Research

  • Wireless

  • Social websites

  • Email

  • Brief web searches

  • IM / Chat

  • Photos

  • Music / Audio

  • Video

  • Current games

  • Older games

  • Office

  • Fast Internet

    (Broadband)

  • Slow Internet

    (Dial Up)

  • Multimedia

  • Games


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What Can You Do With an Old PC ?

Caveat: end user

running common

software

I II III IV +

  • Word Processing

  • Spreadsheet

  • Presentation Graphics

  • Graphics, images

  • Web surfing

  • Research

  • Wireless

  • Social websites

  • Email

  • Brief web searches

  • IM / Chat

  • Photos

  • Music / Audio

  • Video

  • Current games

  • Older games

  • Office

  • Fast Internet

    (Broadband)

  • Slow Internet

    (Dial Up)

  • Multimedia

  • Games


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More Uses for Old Computers...

  • Specialized App servers

    • Routers

    • Firewalls

    • Print, File, or Network server

    • Email station

    • Word processor

    • other single-use

  • Run old programs (compatibly)

    • Business programs (eg: Instrumentation, Farming)

    • Retro gaming box

  • Act as terminals (Linux Terminal Server Project - LTSP)

  • Run Free software on Free hardware


  • Slide12 l.jpg

    Summary

    • New PCs are required for --

      • Latest games

      • State-of-the-art graphics

      • High-end multimedia

      • Current Microsoft software

  • Pentium III does everything else

  • Pentium II fine for many uses but --

    • 450 Mhz + 256 M tops

  • Pentium I useful but --

    • 266 mhz + 128 M tops

    • Security software overwhelms them

  • Dial-up


    Slide13 l.jpg

    “TurnoverEvents”

    • Driven by --

    • Technology Examples --

      • Monitors -> flat panels

      • ZIP disks -> USB thumb drives

      • Pentium-II’s -> newer machines

  • Marketing Examples --

    • New releases of MS Office

    • Vista

    • What happens to PCs that can’t run Vista ?

  • Technology

    or

    Marketing



    Slide15 l.jpg

    Generations of PCs

    Pentium

    IV +

    III

    II

    I

    pre-Pentium

    (486, 386, 286/AT, XT, PC)

    Simplified View


    Slide16 l.jpg

    Typical Hardware

    * Memory varies widely

    * Desktops versus laptops

    * Max’ed out versus what shipped

    * “Celeron” and “Xeon” mean nothing

    Source: Tom’s Hardware, other web sites


    Slide17 l.jpg

    Typical Hardware

    AMD Equivalents

    Source: Tom’s Hardware, other web sites


    Slide18 l.jpg

    Memory

    Maximum RAM (typical)

    128m 256m varies

    P-I P-II P-III

    --- Usually ---

    * Use one level slower as next level faster

    * All in group cost same -> buy fastest !

    Source: Tom’s Hardware, other web sites


    Slide19 l.jpg

    What Is Free ?

    Pentium

    IV +

    III

    II

    I

    pre-Pentium

    (486, 386, 286/AT, XT, PC)

    10% 70% 20%

    P-I P-II P-III

    • Mix changes yearly

    • Capabilities of

      “old computers” constantly increase

    • Where you get free PCs shades the mix


    Slide20 l.jpg

    This Talk focuses on PC Desktops

    ...Other Computers ?...

    Laptops

    -- Fewer out there

    -- Higher priced

    -- Free is less common

    -- More proprietary

    Apples

    -- Proprietary --> even across the Apple line !

    -- Parts --> expensive, hard to find



    Slide22 l.jpg

    Steps to Follow With an Old PC

    1. Identify what you’ve got

    -- Hardware

    -- Software

    2. Verify hardware & software

    -- Check the boot configuration panel & run diagnostics

    -- Ensure devices work (hardware and drivers)

    -- Check disks, reading/writing CD/DVD & floppy

    -- Windows Device Mgmt panel

    -- Ensure software is malware free

    -- Verify installed programs work

    -- Break login password (ntpasswd in Linux rescue CDs)

    3. Define objectives

    4. Determine whether this old pc can achieve them

    5. Download drivers, manuals, etc, from vendor’s web site

    6. Fix hardware & software, download, configure, install

    to achieve objectives


    Slide23 l.jpg

    Example -- This Laptop

    • IBM Thinkpad 770Z P-II @ 366 mhz / 128M ram / 14g disk

    • CDROM, floppy, 56k modem, USB port

    • 13.7” screen w/AGP graphics and 8M ram

      NO --> 10/100 port, wireless card, Writeable CD or DVD

    • All hardware works

      • Config panel * Disk check

      • Config diagnostics * Tested devices

      • Windows Devices panel

  • Software is Windows 98

    • Virus / malware clean * Programs work

    • Registry clean * MSCONFIG and daemons

  • More at -- www.Desktoplinux.com/articles/AT6185716632.html


    Slide24 l.jpg

    Example -- My Objectives ...

    * Office support (word processing etc in MS formats)

    * Presentations (in MS format)

    * Email (dial-up ok)

    * Web look-up (dial-up acceptable)

    * Run common Windows and Linux apps

    Conclusion ->

    • Keep Windows

    • Install Linux and run from RAM

    • Buy 128M for $20 --> 256M

    UpgradeMemory.com

    KingstonMemory.com


    Slide25 l.jpg

    Example #2 -- Professional’s Desktop

    Objectives

    • Office work (all in MS formats)

      • Word processing

      • Presentations

      • Spreadsheets

  • Email

  • Web use: 0 in 1996 to lots today

  • Doesn’t want to pay $500 for new computer

  • P-II

    P-II+

    P-III

    Goal -- heavier web use

    --> Switched to free P-III

    --> Added $10/month AT&T DSL

    Goal -- OS outdated

    --> Added Ubuntu

    Goal -- heavier multi-tasking

    --> Upgraded memory to 256M

    --> Windows tune-up

    Pentium-II

    Purchased 1997


    Slide26 l.jpg

    Example #2 -- Professional’s Desktop

    • Dell P-III 550 mhz / 448M ram / 2 x 6 G disk

    • DVD-ROM, CD/RW, floppy, 10/100 card, USB ports

    • From the P-II --

      • P-II monitor, keyboard, mouse

      • Original 6 gig disk

  • From one P-III --

    • System Unit, 320m ram, USB ports, DVD-ROM, CD-RW,

      floppy, 10/100 card

  • From the other P-III

    • 2nd 6 gig disk, 128M ram

  • Remaining P-II parts go to other builds


  • Slide27 l.jpg

    Easy-to-Fix Problems

    Windows

    + Viruses / spyware / malware

    + Registry or software corruption

    + Slow and needing software tune-up

    -> Defrag disk, remove malware, prune start-up list (msconfig & Runlist),

    check daemons & Services, erase index.dat & other

    temporary, set-up, internet, cache, & “junk files”, cookies, URL history...

    + Broken or replaceable device

    + Slow due to needing memory

    + Random shutdowns

    -> Overheating - check fans, redo heat sink, clean PC

    + Won’t boot

    -> Check wires, card seating, loose screws

    + Bad device driver

    Hardware


    Slide28 l.jpg

    O

    S

    Operating System Choice is Key

    OS determines --

    * OS overhead on limited computer resources

    * Your Apps

    * How easy or hard they are to find

    * How much they cost or if free


    Slide29 l.jpg

    3 “Operating Environment” Choices

    Keep

    Windows

    only

    Replace

    Windows

    w/ Linux

    (or other OS)

    Add Linux

    to

    Windows

    + Benefits of Windows

    and Linux

    + Linux co-exists

    with Windows

    -- Effort

    -- Requires 1/2 G disk

    + No malware

    + Simplest install

    + Linux benefits

    -- Drivers?

    -- Loses value of the

    installed software

    + Easiest

    + Drivers included

    + Age-appropriate software

    -- Cleanup required

    -- No MS fixes or support

    -- License & COA required


    Slide30 l.jpg

    IV. Windows

    on Old PCs


    Slide31 l.jpg

    Windows Benefits

    (versus Linux)

    Compatible file formats

    Easy to use

    Efficient GUI on 486 to P-II

    Device drivers

    Comes on the computer


    Slide32 l.jpg

    Microsoft GUI is Efficient on

    486s - P-I’s - P-II’s

    Windows 3.1, 95 or 98 with Office 4, 95 or 97

    + Faster than Linux GUIs on 486 or P-I

    + More user-friendly !

    + Retain this software on 486 to P-II

    Example -- 486-DX2 @ 25 mhz / 8M ram / Windows 3.1 / WordPerfect 5

    Eg -- firewall + virus scanner + malware scanner + intrusion blocker

    is required if you connect to internet

    But security software sinks them


    Slide33 l.jpg

    Examples

    Windows 98 SE plus Office 97

    * P-I 90 mhz / 32M

    * P-I 166 MMX mhz / 64M

    Both work great

    Both crawl if you add--

    -- Virus and spyware scanners

    -- Firewall and intrusion detector

    -- Plus try downloading anti-virus updates with dial-up !

    Windows 98 plus Office 97

    * P-I 90 mhz / 32M

    * P-I 166 MMX mhz / 64M


    Slide34 l.jpg

    From: Microsoft’s web site 2006

    Windows

    System

    Require-

    ments

    Double

    Microsoft’s

    values for

    good

    performance !


    Slide35 l.jpg

    Free Software

    Required to

    Secure

    Windows

    “How to Secure

    Your Windows PC

    Using Free Software”

    by H. Fosdick

    at DBAZine

    http://www.dbazine.com


    Slide36 l.jpg

    How to Anonymize Windows PCs

    • When you Delete files, and empty the recycle bin,

      those files are still accessible

    • When you Delete IE history, the list of all web sites you

      ever visited is still accessible

    • When you Outlook Delete email, & empty the waste basket,

      all that email is still accessible

    • When you change personal info in product Options,

      that doesn’t change the splash panel or product ownership

    Conclusions -- (1) Windows gives users into a false sense of privacy

    (2) Anonymizing Windows is hard


    Slide37 l.jpg

    How to Anonymize Windows PCs

    • Re-format hard disk -> Darik’s Boot and Nuke

      + Quick, easy, sure

      -- Loses value of installed software

      ****************************************** or *******************************************

    • Remove personal info

      • Registry (First name, last name, organization, user id, etc)

        (Do this for all users, in both Keys and Values)

      • Spash panels (Product Options, Registry, Office 95/97 binaries)

  • Locate & delete personal files (in My Documents & elsewhere)

    (*.doc, *.xls, *.ppt, *.txt, *.rtf, *.wab, *.acl, *.pwl, *.pcb, *.pst, *.pps, etc)

  • Address book files (Outlook, Outlook Express, IE)

  • Email (*.mbx and *pst files)

  • Web history (index.dat files and Registry) -> PurgeIE and manual

  • Virus / spyware / malware scan -> AVG, A-2, Clamwin...

  • Delete Temp, Internet Temp files, cache -> CCleaner, FIWW

  • Delete MRUs, product histories, IE history, cookies -> MRU-Blaster

  • Delete user ids and their files

  • Delete info embedded in products (registration, user ids, etc)

  • Defrag then overwrite unused disk (inc slack, swap & dir.) -> BcWipe or Eraser


  • Slide38 l.jpg

    “Rescue Disks”

    (To Fix Windows or Linux)

    Ultimate Boot CD

    for Windows

    ubcd4win.com

    Ultimate Boot CD

    (for Linux)

    Linux “Rescue Disks”

    Knoppix and others

    ultimatebootcd.com


    Slide39 l.jpg

    V. Linux (etc)

    on Old PCs


    Slide40 l.jpg

    Free Operating Systems

    Linux

    Minix

    Others

    BSD

    DOS

    + Biggest family

    + Most software

    + Most popular

    + BeOS

    + OS/2 soon?

    + New Deal

    -- Not popular

    + Very lightweight

    + Inspired Linux

    -- Limited apps

    -- Less popular

    + Fast

    + Small

    + Bug free rep

    + Tons of apps

    + Very lightweight

    + Still popular worldwide

    -- GUI


    Slide41 l.jpg

    Linux Benefits

    (versus Windows)

    Co-exists with other

    operating systems

    No Registry or

    DLL problems

    No viruses, spyware,

    malware

    No privacy issues

    No WGA, Product Activation,

    or stealth updates

    No licensing issues

    No artificial lockout

    from current software

    No forced upgrades

    Free apps !

    Small distros

    Many distros


    Slide42 l.jpg

    Small Linux” Strategies

    Small distro

    1.

    Older release of big distro

    2.

    Tailor distro during install

    3.


    Slide43 l.jpg

    Some

    Small

    Linuxes

    See --

    DistroWatch.com

    DistroMania.com

    Review

    System

    Requirements


    Slide44 l.jpg

    3 Favorite “Small Linuxes”

    Damn Small Linux

    BeatrIX /

    BeaFanatIX

    Puppy

    + For end users

    + Runs on any Pentium

    + 128M to run in ram

    -- Not widely used

    + Smallest (486 w/ 16M)

    + Popular

    -- Geekiest (not for end user)

    -- Minimal apps

    + All the apps you need

    + Popular

    + Not as geeky as DSL

    + Small

    128M -> 320M to run in ram

    -- Not as friendly as BeatrIX

    All run from memory with 128M +


    Slide45 l.jpg

    Ways to Install Linux

    1. Live CD

    -- To verify product, video, drivers, etc

    -- To evaluate and learn product

    2. Full Install

    -- Co-exist with Windows

    -- Needs its own partition

    -- Most Linuxes recognize Windows

    -- They create boot selection list

    -- Little disk required

    (Continue to use Windows partition for your data)

    3. Frugal Install

    -- Stores Linux as file(s) in existing Windows partition

    4. Windows Program

    -- Icon on Windows desktop

    5. USB memory Stick

    -- Leaves Windows un-changed

    6. Updatable CD or DVD

    -- Leaves Windows un-changed

    Almost all

    Linuxes

    Some

    Linuxes


    Slide46 l.jpg

    How to Co-Install Linux with Windows

    Linux includes the Partitioning, Boot Selection, and

    Windows-recognition tools you need… free

    1. Verify Windows disk is good

    (My Computer | Properties | Tools | Disk check)

    2. Defrag Windows volume

    3. Live CD to boot Linux

    4. Resize Windows partition smaller if you need space

    5. Create new Linux partition

    6. Create Linux Swap partition

    7. Install Linux

    8. Verify boot selection menu (/boot/grub/menu.lst)


    Slide47 l.jpg

    GUI is Key to Resource Usage

    * Always in use

    * Memory-consumptive

    * Gnome & KDE

    + Linux “standards”

    -- Require 128 M

    * JWM, IceWM, Xfce, FVWM, Flubox, others

    + Much less Memory ( < 64M)

    * Command line

    + Fine for App Server

    + Ok for geeks

    -- Not ok for end users

    See xwinman.org for GUI details


    Slide48 l.jpg

    Pick Light Apps !

    Lite !

    Good

    Bad

    Abiword OpenOffice 1 (64M)

    Gnumeric OpenOffice 2 (128M)

    Dillo Firefox, Mozilla

    Terminal window GUI apps

    JWM, FVWM Gnome, KDE

    Older releases Newer releases of

    (Acrobat, Winzip, etc) the same products

    Office 97 Office 2000, 2003, 2007

    Notepad Word

    K-Meleon IE (any version), Firefox

    ImgBurn, FinalBurner Easy CD Creator, Nero

    TinyFirewall, Sygate ZoneAlarm

    Ad-aware, AVG ClamWin

    Windows 98, 3.1 GUIs Vista GUI

    Linux

    Windows


    Slide49 l.jpg

    Free BSD

    BSD requires minimal resources for

    older versions -- originally released in 1993

    Minix 3

    • Inspired Linux

    • Fast and light (down to 486s)

    • Apps cover all the bases... but not as many as Linux

    • Open source


    Slide50 l.jpg

    CTL-

    ALT-

    DEL

    Free DOS

    • Tons of apps

    • Best on really old equipment (486/386/286/XT/PC)

    • Great for non-GUI systems

    • Some GUIs available

    • Modern DOS overcomes old DOS limitations

    1. FreeDOS

    2. OpenDOS

    3. DR-DOS

    Learn about today’s DOS at --

    www.devedia.com/dosghost/dos/dosw31.asp

    Collectable Computers -- www.vintage-computer/vcforum


    Slide51 l.jpg

    Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP)

    PC Linux

    Server

    100 mhz and 64 M +

    X-terminal PCs

    Running LTSP Linux

    Big Money Saver !

    See: FreeSoftwareMagazine.com article by Robert Pogson

    http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/articles/linux_terminal_server

    Also: www.ltsp.org


    Slide52 l.jpg

    VI. Where to get

    a Free PC

    -- or --

    Give one away !


    Slide53 l.jpg

    Where to Get a Free PC--

    Phoebe Jane does the job !


    Slide54 l.jpg

    (or very low-cost PC)

    Where to Get a Free PC--

    * Trash

    * IT co-workers

    * Friends

    * www.FreeSharing.org

    * www.FreeCycle.org

    * www.CraigsList.org

    * Rummage sales

    FreeSharing

    works !

    Church rummage sales


    Slide55 l.jpg

    • Free Hardware

    • Free Software

    • You pay labor

    • Maybe you buy a part (eg: Memory)

    • Internet “subscription” is not free

      • $ 10 avg / month SLOW ($5-10)

      • $ 30 avg / month FAST ($10-40)

    What Does “Free” Mean ?

    AT&T / Yahoo

    DSL is

    $10 / month !


    Slide56 l.jpg

    Works?

    Resources?

    Where to Donate a PC ?

    • Environmental Protection Agency

      www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/recycle/ecycling/donate.htm#local

    • Craigslist.org, FreeSharing.org, FreeCycling.org, rummage sales

    • People’s Resource Center (www.peoplesrc.org) Wheaton

      -> 500 mhz or better

    • If too old for re-use

      -> Sims/United Recycling

      166 Harvester Ave, W. Chicago

      $0.25 / lb.


    Slide57 l.jpg

    VII. The New World

    of “Free” Computing


    Slide58 l.jpg

    How the PC Industry Works

    • Wintel monopolizes U.S. computer market

    • Over 50% of Microsoft’s revenue is from Windows & Office

    • They have to force you to upgrade

    • Each release soaks up new hardware for new functionality

    • This Planned Obsolescence is artificial

    • Conclusions --

      • Word 97, 2000, 2003, 2007…. Who cares?

      • Non state-of-the-art PCs are useful

      • Vista -- a great example of a needless upgrade


    Slide59 l.jpg

    How Microsoft Forces You to Upgrade

    • MS software is designed not to run on older computers

    • Software prerequisites are marketing-based (not technology-driven)

      (eg: you must have IE to get Windows Updates or run XP or etc.

      Or, you must have a certain level of product to use an unrelated product)

    • Older MS software doesn’t run on newer machines

      (eg: Win 98 needs bug fixes for > 512 M and > 2 ghz)

    • MS terminates security fixes, support for older software (key due to Windows security flaws)

    • WGA & PA kill old copies of software

    • Registry prevents porting a Windows disk across computers or even an upgraded computer

    • Registry locks / controls installed software

    • Intentional incompatibilities between different versions of the same product

      (eg: older version of Word can not read *.doc file from newer version)

    • EULAs say you can’t legally transfer software to a second owner without COA and all doc

    • Very difficult to anonymize Windows without wiping the disk

    • New Windows versions are bundled with all PC purchases

      (no consumer choice due to coerced vendor lock-out)


    Slide60 l.jpg

    Ability to Enforce

    Planned Obsolescence

    High

    US

    Automotive

    Industry

    Low

    PC

    Industry

    1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020


    Slide61 l.jpg

    Trends !

    The Monopoly is Ending

    End

    of

    Monopoly

    Cheap commodity

    hardware

    Free software

    Result --

    Planned

    Obsolescence

    Appropriate

    Technology


    Slide62 l.jpg

    Low-end Machines Proliferate

    OLPC --

    • 433 mhz, 256M ram, 1G flash

    • Self-powered

    • Linux

    • $175 -> $100

    Laptop Projects

    • Millions to be produced

    • Built-in WIFI

    • Kid-tough case

    • Specs, cost in transition

    Intel Classmate --

    • 900 mhz, 256M ram, 1-2G flash

    • 4-hr battery

    • Windows XP Pro or Linux

    • $225 -> $200

    Household appliance

    Consumer PC

    School requirement

    Purchase at Walmart or Target



    Slide64 l.jpg

    Example Computer Charity Programs

    People’s Resource Center (www.peoplesrc.org) Wheaton

    -> 500 mhz or better

    -> Give away > 5,000 computers in Dupage Country

    -> 100 / month

    -> Microsoft Authorized Refurbisher (MAR)

    -> Linux on old PCs (Suse or Ubuntu)

    -> Give away 5,000 to 10,000 / year

    “Re-use, then Recycle”

    “Obsolescence is just a failure of imagination” -- James Burgett

    Alameda County Computer Resource Center (www.accrc.org)


    Slide65 l.jpg

    Recommended Resources

    Free software websites--

    Windows-- TheFreeCountry.org

    MajorGeeks.com

    Download.com

    Linux-- SourceForge.net

    Freshmeat.net

    Hardware Info websites--

    1. TomsHardware.com

    2. PCGuide.com

    3. Computer.HowStuffWorks.com

    4. PCMech.pair.com

    5. PCSupport.About.com

    Hardware books--

    Upgrading & Repairing PCs by Mueller

    Complete PC Upgrade & Maintenance Guide by Minasi

    Where to get Drivers--

    Windows -- DriverGuide.com

    Linux -- Linux-Drivers.org

    Articles --

    http://www.linux.com/article.pl?sid=06/02/13/1854251

    http://www.linuxforums.org/desktop/a_linux_distribution_for_an_old_laptop.html

    http://www.freesoftwaremagazine.com/articles/free_computing


    Slide66 l.jpg

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