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Formative assessment occurs when…. individuals provide feedback to the students in ways that enable the student to learn better;

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Formative assessment occurs when l.jpg
Formative assessment occurs when…

  • individuals provide feedback to the students in ways that enable the student to learn better;

  • or when students engage in self-reflective processes. Students must learn to self-assess, so they can understand the purpose of their learning and the competencies/skills they need to achieve/succeed.


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Formative assessment should

  • focus on the task;

  • focus on feedback to the student that is understandable;

  • allow students the opportunity to explore and express their understanding;

  • provide students the opportunity to improve;

  • provide guidance on how to improve.


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The good news…

  • as clinical instructors/supervisors we are already utilizing strategies and tools of formative assessment.


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We are assessing student competencies via…

  • individual planning conferences;

  • dx. activities (competencies…observation skills; case hx. skills; test administration; ability to diagnose/det. need for tx (type/length of tx.); counseling; referral)

  • tx. planning and execution;

  • pre-certification requirements (provide benchmarks for evaluating client progress as well as student progress);


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assessment through…

  • client staffings;

  • individual session evaluations;

  • mid-term and final evaluations (by student and clinical instructor);

  • session documentation (benchmarks for tx. outcomes); journals

  • student portfolios;


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assessment through…

  • clinical outcomes (projected number of hours in tx. vs. actual hours);

  • client satisfaction forms;

  • Individual Program Plan (IPP) for students (e.g., student strengths, needs, outcomes, time lines, responsible person/persons);

  • Clinical Education Seminars;


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Student Portfolios in the areas of…

  • Pediatric Language

  • School-age Language

  • Adult Language

  • Phonology

  • Voice

  • Stuttering

  • Oral Motor


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Portfolios

  • Oral Motor, Swallowing and Feeding (Infant, Child, Adult)

  • Oral Mechanism

  • Augmentative/Alternative

  • Adult Motor Speech


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School Age Language (6-16)

  • Assessment

  • Select, administer and interpret a minimum of 3 evaluations in any of the following areas:

  • 1. Semantic language: PPVT-R, Test of Adolescent/Adult Word Finding, Receptive/Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, Language Processing Test, The Word Test. . .

  • 2. Syntactic language: TOLD-I, TOAL-3, CELF-III, Fullerton Test of Adolescent Language, Oral and Written Language Scales


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School Age Language (6-16)

  • 3. Pragmatic language: Test of Language Competence, Test of Pragmatic Skills

  • 4. Other: Lindamood (LAC), The Listening Test, Test of Auditory Reasoning and Processing Skills, Test of Problem Solving, Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude,CAVAT, Woodcock/Johnson Test of Achievement . . .


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School Age Language (6-16)

  • Treatment

  • Select and implement a miminum of 3 treatment programs and published protocols: Wiig Criterion Referenced Inventory of Language, HELP, BEST, Daily Communication, Language Remediation for the Older Elementary Child, Communication Lab, Auditory Discrimination in Depth, Sloane . . .


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School Age Language (6-16)

  • Equipment

  • Utilize/explore the use of at least 1 piece of equipment for the evaluation and treatment of language disorders in the school age population, as needed: FM assistive listening device, computer programs, purchased or home-made augmentative communicative systems . . .


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School Age Language (6-16)

  • Resources

  • Show evidence of having consulted a minimum of 2 resources:

  • Books: Language Intervention with School-age Children, Naremore, et.al.; Language and Learning Disablilities in School-age Children and Adolescents, Wallach and Butler; Language Disorders from Infancy through Adolesence, Paul . . .

  • Professional journals, conferences and inservices . . .


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Phonology

  • Assessment

  • 1. Will select, administer and interpret a minimum of 2 tests of articulation: GFTA, Templin Darley, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale, McDonald Deep Test of Articulation, Structured Photographic Articulation Test, Fisher-Logemann Test of Articulatory Competence, Weiss Comprehensive Articulation Test . . .


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Phonology

  • 2. Will select, administer and interpret at least 1 test of phonological analysis: Assessment of Phonological Processes, ALPHA Test of Phonology, Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis, Weiner Phonological Assessment for the Apple, ISPA for the Macintosh . . .


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Phonology

  • 3. Will select, administer and interpret at least 1 test of developmental apraxia: Screening Test for Developmental Apraxia, Kaufman Speech Praxis Test . . .

  • 4. Will complete at least 1 50-word utterance speech sample and analyze the errors in context.


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Phonology

  • Treatment

  • Will select and implement a treatment program according to the client’s need following a minimum of 1 procedure in each group.

  • Traditional Articulation Therapy Discrimination approach (Winitz, Silverstein), Stimulus approach (Van Riper), Nonsense approach (Gerber), Phonetic Placement (Scripture and Jackson) . . .


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Phonology

  • Phonological Cycling (Hodson & Paden), Natural Process Analysis (Shirbey and Kevin Hossli), Phonological Awareness (Torgesen & Bryant, Robertson & Salter), Open Syllable (Young), Minimal Contrast Pairs (Weiner), Maximal Contrast Pairs (Guiret), Phonological reorganization (Williams).


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Phonology

  • Equipment

  • Will gain experience using a minimum of 3 pieces of equipment for evaluation and treatment of phonological disorders: VisiPitch, Speech Viewer, Kay Facilitator, TOFA; Computer apps: APP-R, PROMP, ISPA, artic and phonological software including Picture Gallery, Erobics, Artic; Oral Aerobics (Videotape) . . .


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Phonology

  • Other

  • Distinctive Feature (Costello-Onstine), Paired Stimuli (Weston) . . .

  • Developmental Apraxia

  • Melodic Apraxia Training (Smith-Engle), Easy Does It (Strode & Chamberlain), PROMPT (Shumpelik), Touch-Cue Method (Bashir, et.al.) . . .


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Phonology

  • Resources

  • Show evidence of having consulted at least 1 of the following:

  • Books: Assessment and Remediation of Articulatory and Phonological Disorders, (Newman, Craighead and Secord); Articulation Disorders (Bernthal and Bankson); The Assessment of Phonological Processes, (Hodson); Perspectives in Applied Phonology (Edwards & Hodson) . . .

  • Professional journals, conferences and inservices . . .


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