Effects of Multiple Stabilized Enzymes on growth and performance of starter pigs
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Effects of Multiple Stabilized Enzymes on growth and performance of starter pigs A. Gueye 1 , C. R. Richardson 1 , and D. A. Haverkamp 2 1 Texas Tech University, Lubbock and 2 Natur’s Way Inc, Horton, KS ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

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Effects of Multiple Stabilized Enzymes on growth and performance of starter pigs

A. Gueye1, C. R. Richardson1, and D. A. Haverkamp2

  • 1Texas Tech University, Lubbock and 2Natur’s Way Inc, Horton, KS

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

  • Body weight and pen feed consumption were recorded at the start of the experiments and then at d 14 and d 28

  • Data were analyzed for the periods of 0 to 14; 15 to 28 and 0 to 28 days for ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion (FC)

  • All data were pooled and analyzed (pen = experimental unit)

  • ADG, ADFI, and FC analyzed as a CRD

  • Initial weight was used as a covariate

  • GLM of SAS (1985) used for computation

  • Orthogonal contrasts were used to detect differences among least square means

  • Orthogonal contrasts (Steel and Torrie, 1980) included: 1) control vs all other treatments, 2) no fat vs fat, and 3) MSE vs fat.

  • A series of five experiments were conducted using 21 d-old crossbred weanling pigs (9.48 ±. 36 kg) to determine the effects of an enzyme-microbial product (Multiple Stabilized Enzymes – MSE) on growth and performance of starter pigs. In each experiment, 96 pigs (4 pens of 6 pigs each) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: A) control, B) MSE, C) MSE + 1% fat, and D) MSE + 2% fat. Pigs were housed in environmentally controlled pens with plastic slotted floors, and equipped with a nipple waterer and a self-feeder. Pig weights and feed intake were recorded at the beginning of each experiment and at day 14 and 28. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. All five experiments were pooled and the data analyzed with pen as the experimental unit for the periods 0-14 d, 15-28 d, and 0-28 d. ADG, ADFI, and feed conversion were analyzed as a completely randomized design using initial weight as a covariate. For d 0 to d 14, treatment had no effect on ADG, but ADFI decreased (P<. 05) for pigs fed MSE with increasing levels of fat as compared to the control group. Pigs fed MSE + 1% fat had an improved (P<. 05) feed conversion as compared to the control. For d 14 to d 28, treatment had no effect on ADG or feed conversion, but ADFI decreased (P<. 05) for pigs fed MSE + 1% fat. Overall (d 0 to d 28), treatment had no effect on ADG, but ADFI and feed conversion improved (P<. 05) for pigs fed MSE + 1% fat as compared to the pigs in the control group. In summary, addition of MSE in starter pig diets resulted in decreased average daily feed intake, improved feed conversion, but had no effect on average daily gain.

  • Key Words: Pigs, Enzyme-Microbial, Diets, Growth, Performance, Feed conversion

  • Increasing economic pressures being placed upon livestock producers along with the growing concern over the use of growth-promoting drugs has forced producers to search for ways to naturally increase the efficiency of feedstuff utilization. Recently research has begun to shift towards the enhancement of feed digestion by the means of using “natural” or nonantibiotic feed additives. Young pigs face many changes during the weaning transition. Abrupt changes in diet and environment increase the possibility for decreased intake, poor performance, and increase risk of disease. The resulting postweaning lag is commonly treated with subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics; however, the widespread use of these drugs may promote the development of resistant bacteria (Mathew et al., 1998), increase the risk of contamination of meat products and cause concern among some consumer groups (Braude, 1978; Kunin, 1993; Cassell, 1995).

    The development of other feed additives that have a positive effect on pig performance can be a good alternative to the use of antibiotics as feed supplements. Multiple stabilized enzymes (MSE) is a feed additive designed to increase the digestibility and thus increase the feed conversion for all classes of livestock. Although MSE contains minerals and vitamins crucial to animals, it consists mostly of enzymes and microbial supplements. Probiotics, including yeast and lactobacilli cultures have been reported to improve performance of weaned pigs (Pollman et al., 1980; Lessard and Brisson, 1987; Kornegay et al., 1995). The objective of this experiment was to determine if MSE added to the basal diet of 21-day-old weaning starter pigs effects average daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion.

    Kg feed/kg gain

    Treatments

    Figure 3. Effects of MSE on FC of starter pigs

    d 0 to 14 control vs all other treatments and no fat vs fat (P = .02 each)

    d 0 to 28 control vs all other treatments (P = .04)

    RESULTS

    CONCLUSIONS

    Kg/hd/d

    These data indicate that the addition of the multiple stabilized enzyme product (MSE) into the nursery pig diets did not improve ADG. However, feed conversion did improve when MSE was fed. In order to maximize the effects of MSE in the animal we must have a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the different enzymes and microbials contained in the MSE product. This may allow a more extensive use for better improvement of livestock performance. Also, more investigation is needed to determine the interactions and the stability of MSE in mixture with other feed ingredients for more efficient use of the product.

    Table 1. Ingredient composition of diets fed to pigs (as fed)

    OBJECTIVES

    Treatments

    Ingredients Dietary Treatments

    Control MSE MSE + 1% fat MSE + 2% fat

    ------------------------------- % --------------------------------

    Grain sorghum, ground 58.70 58.60 57.60 56.60

    Soybean meal (44%) 19.00 19.00 19.00 19.00

    Beet pulp, ground 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00

    Fish meal 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

    Fat (Veg./tallow blend) 3.00 3.00 4.00 5.00

    Dical. phosphate .85 .85 .85 .85

    Redmond clay .95 .95 .95 .95

    Ditomaceous earth .50 .50 .50 .50

    Magnesium oxide .05 .05 .05 .05

    Salt, plain .25 .25 .25 .25

    Vitamin and mineral premixa 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70

    MSEb ----- .10 .10 .10

    Figure 1. Effects of MSE on ADFI of starter pigs

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if Multiple Stabilized Enzymes (MSE) added to the basal diet of 21-day-old weanling pigs effect feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion

    d 0 to 14 control vs all other treatments and no fat vs fat (P = .05 and .02,

    respectively)

    d 14 to 28 control vs all other treatments; no fat vs fat; and MSE vs fat (P=

    .008; .002; and .05, respectively)

    d 0 to 28 control vs all other treatments; no fat vs fat; and MSE vs fat ( P =

    .007; .002; and .06, respectively)

    LITERATURE CITED

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Braude, R. 1978. Antibiotics in animal feeds in Great Britain. J. Anim. Sci. 46:1425-

    1436.

    Cassel, G. H. ASM Task Force Urges Board Program on Antimicrobials resistance.

    ASM

    News 61:116-120.

    Kornegay, E. T., D. Rhein-Welker, M. D. Lindemann, and C. M. Wood. 1995.

    Performance and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs as influenced by yeast culture

    additions to starter diets containing dried whey or one of two fiber sources. J. Anim.

    Sci. 73:1381-1389.

    Kunin, C. M. 1993. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs: A worldwide calamity. Ann.

    Intern. Med. 118:557-561

    Lessard, M., and G. J. Brisson. 1987. Effect of a lactobacillus fermentation product on

    growth, immune response and fecal enzyme activity in weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim.

    Sci. 67:509-516.

    Mathew, A. G., W. G. Upchurch, and S. E. Chattin. 1998. Incidence of antibiotic

    resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine farms. J. Anim.

    Sci. 76:429-434.

    Pollmann, D. S., D. M. Danielson, and E. R. Peo, Jr. 1980. Effects of microbial feed

    additives on performance of starter and growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.

    51:577-581.

    SAS. 1985. SAS Users Guide: Statistics, Version 5 ed. Statistical Analysis system

    Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.

    Steel, R. G., and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-

    Hill Book Co., New York.

    • Five Exp. Using 21-day-old crossbred weanling pigs (n = 480)

    • In each Exp. 96 pigs (4 pen of 6 pigs each) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments:

      • A = control

      • B = MSE

      • C = MSE + 1% fat

      • D = MSE + 2% fat

    • Pigs were housed in environmentally controlled pens with slotted plastic floors

    • Pigs were processed 3 days after birth according to the normal protocol at Texas Tech University

    • Ad libitum access to feed and water was offered to pigs

    • The MSE product was included in the diets at zero Kg/ton (control) and .91 Kg/metric ton (MSE)

    • Diets were formulated to meet or exceed all NRC requirements for weanling pigs

    • All routine care, treatment, housing and sampling procedures were conducted under protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Texas Tech University

    Kg/hd/d

    aPremix provided (per kilogram): 771,050 IU vitamin A; 110,150 IU vitamin D3; 5,875 IU vitamin E; 399 mg menadione; 2.6 mg vitamin B12; 1,762 mg riboflavin; 3,305 mg niacin; 2,203 mg d-pantothenic acid; 27,538 mg choline; 7.501 g Zn; 3.000g Mn; 8.751 g Fe; .876g Cu; and .01000g I.

    bMSE was included in the basal diet at rate of .91 kg/metric ton

    P > 0.05

    Treatments

    Figure 2. Effects of MSE on ADG of starter pigs


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