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P R E S E N T S THE FIRE THAT CONSUMES Edward William Fudge www.EdwardFudge.com. All glory and praise to God’s Son, our Savior, the LORD JESUS CHRIST, who delivers us from the wrath to come. . Rob Bell Francis Chan Mark Galli Hell is much in the news today.

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P r e s e n t s the fire that consumes edward william fudge www edwardfudge com
P R E S E N T STHE FIRE THAT CONSUMESEdward William Fudgewww.EdwardFudge.com


All glory and praiseto God’s Son, our Savior,the LORD JESUS CHRIST,who delivers usfrom the wrath to come.


Rob bell francis chan mark galli hell is much in the news today
Rob BellFrancis ChanMark GalliHell is much in the news today.



In this hour we will see … Scripture . . .

Three Views of Hell

WHAT IS THE WICKED’S END?

O.T. * Intertestamental * N.T.

CHURCH HISTORY:

traditional doctrine evolves

Why it matters


Three Views of Hell Scripture . . .

Three Views of Hell

The fire that torments forever

(Majority/traditional view)

1


Three Views of Hell Scripture . . .

The fire that torments forever

(Majority/traditional view)

1

Emphasizes

‘eternal punishment’‘fire not quenched’‘smoke goes up forever’


A troubling question: Scripture . . . Must we conclude that God,who gave his Son for sinners,

will keep billions of them alive–to torment them without end?


A troubling question: Scripture . . . Must we conclude that God,who gave his Son for sinners,

However, highly-respected, Bible-believing scholars in increasing numbers are answering NO!

If that is what Scripture teaches, our answer will be YES . . .

will keep billions of them alive–to torment them without end?


F.F. BRUCE Scripture . . .

Prof NT and Exegesis

Manchester Univ. (U.K.)

“The dean of New Testament commentators”

{


JOHN STOTT Scripture . . .

Preacher, Commentator, Missioner

Michael Green

Philip E. Hughes John Stackhouse

John Franke Homer Hailey

Clark H. Pinnock Dale Moody

John Wenham Richard Bauckham

N. T. Wright Tom L. Robinson


MICHAEL GREEN Scripture . . .

British scholar, author

EEvangelism in the New Testament


E. EARLE ELLIS Scripture . . .

“the scholars’ scholar”

Southwestern Baptist

Theological Seminary


PHILIP E. HUGHES Scripture . . .

Guest professor:

Westminster Theological Seminary

Reformed Theological Seminary


THOMAS H. OLBRICHT Scripture . . .

Religion Dept. Head (retired)

Pepperdine University

Abilene Christian University

First acknowledgement In TFTC


JOHN McRAY Scripture . . .

Wheaton College Graduate School

Well published in Archaeology, and Pauline studies


JOHN STACKHOUSE Scripture . . .

Regent College (Vancouver, B.C.)

prolific author


DALE MOODY Scripture . . .

Taught nearly 40 years

The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville


JOHN FRANKE Scripture . . .

Biblical Seminary

Hatfield, Pennsylvania

First Presbyterian Church

Allentown, Pennsylvania


HOMER HAILEY Scripture . . .

Abilene Christian College

Florida (Christian) College


THOMAS L. ROBINSON Scripture . . .

Senior Minister - Manhattan Church of Christ

______________________________________

Union Theological Sem.

Princeton Theol. Seminary

Harvard University

Abilene Christian Univ.

Pepperdine University


CLARK PINNOCK Scripture . . .

McMaster University

(Hamilton, Ontario)

New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary

Regent College -- Trinity Divinity School

prolific author


JOHN WENHAM Scripture . . .

Evangelical Anglican pioneer


RICHARD BAUCKHAM Scripture . . .

(University of St. Andrews)

now at Cambridge


N.T. WRIGHT Scripture . . .

University of St. Andrews


Besides the traditional view two other explanations have been offered
Besides the traditional view, Scripture . . . two other explanationshave been offered.


Three Views of Hell Scripture . . .

The fire that purifies

(Universal restoration)

The fire that torments forever

1

2


Three Views of Hell Scripture . . .

The fire that purifies

(Universal restoration)

The fire that torments forever

1

2

Emphasizes

God is not willing that any perishSavior of all, especially believers

Reconciled the world to himself


Three Views of Hell Scripture . . .

Emphasizes

The fire that consumes

(Most biblically consistent view)

The fire that torments forever

The fire that purifies

1

2

3

God is a consuming fire

The wages of sin

is deathGod destroys soul & body in hell


Please do not change your mind tonight
Please Scripture . . . donotCHANGEyour mind tonight.


Please do not challenge your mind tonight
Please Scripture . . . donotCHALLENGEyour mind tonight.


What can we learn about ... Scripture . . .

THE END OF THE WICKED?

Old Testament


It is important to ask the right Scripture . . . question . . .NOT: What does the OT say about hell? BUT: What does the OT say about the end of the wicked?


Not what does the ot say about hell but what does the ot say about the end of the wicked
NOT: Scripture . . . What does the OT say about hell?BUT: What does the OT say about the end of the wicked?


Not what does the ot say about hell but what does the ot say about the end of the wicked1
NOT: Scripture . . . What does the OT say about hell?BUT: What does the OT say about the end of the wicked?


The Hebrew Bible has three parts Scripture . . . :

Law

(Torah)

Writings

(“Psalms”)

Prophets


Luke 24:44 Scripture . . . - “all things … written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophetsand the *Psalms must be fulfilled.”(*also called the “Writings”)

Law

(Torah)

Writings

(“Psalms”)

Prophets


Law Scripture . . .

(Torah)

Writings

(“Psalms”)

Prophets

Predictions

Prototypes

Principles


Writings principles of divine judgment
WRITINGS: Scripture . . . Principles of divine judgment


Example psalm 37 1 do not fret because of evildoers be not envious toward wrongdoers
Example: Psalm 37 Scripture . . . 1 Do not fret because of evildoers, be not envious toward wrongdoers.


2 for they will wither quickly like the grass and fade like the green herb
2 For they will Scripture . . . witherquicklylikethegrass, and fadelikethegreenherb.


9 For evildoers will Scripture . . . becut off, 10 Yet a little while and the wicked man will be no more; And you will look carefully for his place and he will not be there . . . 20 But the wicked will perish. . . They vanish -- like smoke they vanish away . . .


34 . . . Wait for the LORD and keep His way, And He will exalt you to inherit the land ; When the wicked are cut off, you will see it.

But what if we do not see it here? Is God’s justice then thwarted?


The wicked will exalt you to inherit the land ; :wither (Psalm 37:2)be no more (Psalm 104:36)perish (Psalm 1:6)vanish (Psalm 37:20)be destroyed (Psalm 37:38)50 Hebrew verbs (active & passive)


God will exalt you to inherit the land ; :break them in pieces (Psalm 2:9) slay them (Psalm 139:19)cut them off (Psalm 94:23)blot out of book of living (Psalm 69:28)rain fire & brimstone (Psalm 11:6)


Wicked will be exalt you to inherit the land ; like:chaff blown away (Psalm 1:4) snail that melts (Psalm 58:8)grass cut down (Psalm 37:2)wax melts (Psalm 68:2)


clay pot broken (Psalm 2:9) exalt you to inherit the land ; water that flows away (Psalm 58:7)smoke vanishes (Psalm 68:2)stubble before the wind (Psalm 83:13)70 metaphors, similes


PLEASE exalt you to inherit the land ; NOTE:* Not literal descriptions* Reality will correspond to pictures* Reality will not be exactopposite of pictures* This variety of pictures creates a consistent impression . . .


Torah prototypes of divine judgment
TORAH: exalt you to inherit the land ; Prototypesof divine judgment


Exhibit 1: The Flood exalt you to inherit the land ;


What happened exalt you to inherit the land ; ?Gen 7:21 All flesh that moved on the earth perished . . .; 22 ... all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, died. 23 Thus He blotted out every living thing that was upon the face of the land . . .


WAS PREVIEW OF FUTURE exalt you to inherit the land ;


2 Peter 3:5-7 exalt you to inherit the land ; For . . . the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water … 6 through which the worldat that time was destroyed, being flooded with water. 7 But . . . the present heavens and earth are being reserved forfire, kept for theday of judgment and destruc-tion of ungodly men.


Exhibit 2: Sodom exalt you to inherit the land ;


What happened exalt you to inherit the land ; ? Gen. 19:24 Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire… out of heaven, 25 and He overthrew those cities, and … the inhabitants of the cities, and what grew on the ground …


WAS PREVIEW OF FUTURE exalt you to inherit the land ;


2 Peter 2:6 exalt you to inherit the land ; God condemned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah todestructionbyreducingthemto ashes,havingmadetheman example [hypodeigma]to those who would live ungodly lives thereafter;


Jude 7 . . . exalt you to inherit the land ; Sodom and Gomorrah . . . are exhibitedas an example[deigma] in undergoing the punishment of eternal fire.


Prophets predictions of divine judgment four sample messianic texts
PROPHETS: exalt you to inherit the land ; Predictionsof divine judgment(four sample messianic texts)


BROKEN LIKE POTTERY exalt you to inherit the land ; I will proclaim the LORD’s decree: He said to me, “You are my son; today I have begotten you. Ask me, and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession. You will break them with a rod of iron; you will dash them to pieces like pottery” (Psalm 2:7-9).


CORPSES ON BATTLEFIELD exalt you to inherit the land ; The Lord is at your right hand; he will crush kings on the day of his wrath. He will judge the nations, heaping up the dead, and crushing the rulers of the whole earth (Psalm 110:5-6).


CORPSES CONSUMED exalt you to inherit the land ; ”Then they will go forth and look on the corpses of the men who have transgressed against Me. For their worm will not die, and their fire will not be quenched, and they will be an abhorrence to all mankind” (Isaiah 66:24).


ASHES UNDERFOOT exalt you to inherit the land ; The day is coming, burning like a furnace; and . . . every evildoer will be chaff; and the day . . . will set them ablaze,” says the LORD of hosts, “so that it will leave them neither root nor branch” . . . [T]he wicked . . . will be ashes under the soles of your feeton the day which I am preparing,” says the LORD of hosts (Malachi 4:1-3).


Do we get the picture
DO WE GET THE exalt you to inherit the land ; PICTURE?


Broken pottery
broken pottery exalt you to inherit the land ;

Ps 2:7-9


Battlefield corpses
battlefield exalt you to inherit the land ; corpses

Ps 110:5-6


Corpses fire maggots
corpses, fire & maggots exalt you to inherit the land ;

Isa 66:24


Ashes underfoot
ashes underfoot exalt you to inherit the land ;

Mal 4:1-3


* exalt you to inherit the land ; Notliteral descriptions* Reality will correspond to pictures* Reality will not be exact opposite of pictures* Variety of pictures leave one consistent impression


* Not literal descriptions exalt you to inherit the land ; * Reality will correspond to pictures* Reality will not be exact opposite of pictures* Variety of pictures leave one consistent impression


* Not literal descriptions exalt you to inherit the land ; * Reality will correspond to pictures*Reality will not be exact opposite of pictures* Variety of pictures leave one consistent impression


* Not literal descriptions exalt you to inherit the land ; * Reality will correspond to pictures* Reality will not be exact opposite of pictures* What impression do you get from the Old Testament on this topic?


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

INTERTESTAMENTAL

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Views of Hell


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

INTERTESTAMENTAL

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Apocrypha

Views of Hell

(EXCEPT JUDITH 16:17)


JUDITH REVERSES ISAIAH exalt you to inherit the land ;

“Woe to the nations that rise up against my race; the Lord Almighty will take vengeance against them in the day of judgment, to put fire and worms in their flesh; and they will weep and feel their pain forever” (Judith 16:17).


Isaiah exalt you to inherit the land ; Judith

corpsesliving people


Isaiah exalt you to inherit the land ; Judith

corpses living people

consumedtormented


Isaiah exalt you to inherit the land ; Judith

corpses living people

consumed tormented

external internal


Isaiah exalt you to inherit the land ; Judith

corpses living people

consumed tormented

external internal

shamepain


Isaiah exalt you to inherit the land ; Judith

corpses living people

consumed tormented

external internal

shame pain

disgust pity


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END* INTERTESTAMENTAL

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Apocrypha

Views of Hell


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

INTERTESTAMENTAL

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Pseudepigrapha

Apocrypha

Views of Hell


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

INTERTESTAMENTAL

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Dead Sea Scrolls

Pseudepigrapha

Apocrypha

Views of Hell


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

O.T. * Intertestamental * N.T.

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Pseudepigrapha

Dead Sea Scrolls

Apocrypha

Rabbinical

Views of Hell

Dr. Florentino Garcia-Martinez


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

INTERTESTAMENTAL

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Pseudepigrapha

Dead Sea Scrolls

Apocrypha

Rabbinical

Views of Hell


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

INTERTESTAMENTAL

Consuming fire

Purifying fire

Tormenting fire

1

2

3

Pseudepigrapha

Dead Sea Scrolls

Apocrypha

Rabbinical

Views of Hell


WHAT IS THE WICKED exalt you to inherit the land ; ’S END?

NEW TESTAMENT


What does the new testament say
WHAT DOES THE NEW TESTAMENT SAY? exalt you to inherit the land ;


Let’s explore together . . . exalt you to inherit the land ;

New Testament

John the Baptist


JOHN THE BAPTIST: ‘BURN UP’ exalt you to inherit the land ; “I baptize you with water for repen-tance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I . . . His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly clear his threshing floor; and he will gather his wheat into the barn, but he will burn up the chaff withunquench-able fire” (Matt. 3:11-12).


Quenchers at work
‘quenchers’ at work exalt you to inherit the land ;

____________________________________

Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked. (Eph 6:16, KJV)


Common ot warning
common OT warning! exalt you to inherit the land ;

____________________________________

But if you do not listen to Me to keep the sabbath day holy . . . then I will kindle a fire in its gates and it will devour the palaces of Jerusalem and not be quenched (Jer 17:27).

See also Isa 1:31; 34:10; Jer 4:4; 7:20; 21:12; Ezek 20:47-48; Amos 5:6.


Let’s explore together . . . exalt you to inherit the land ;

New Testament

Jesus


JESUS CHRIST: exalt you to inherit the land ; kill, destroy Do not fear those who kill the body but are unable to kill the soul; but rather fear Him who is able to destroy (apollymi)both soul and body in *hell (Matt 10:28).*gehenna (11 times in Gospels)


Valley of sons of hinnom
Valley of Sons of Hinnom exalt you to inherit the land ;

GEHENNA TODAY


JESUS CHRIST: exalt you to inherit the land ; perish“For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish(apollymi), but have eternal life (John 3:16).


Are destroy perish figurative
Are ‘destroy’ & ‘perish’ figurative? exalt you to inherit the land ;

Traditionalists emphasize that ‘destroy’ and ‘perish’ (apollymi) sometimes have figurative meanings:

ruined wineskins (Matt 9:17)

spoiled food (John 6:12)


destroy / perish exalt you to inherit the land ; (apollymi)

  • The disciples about to perish in storm (Matt 8:25);

  • Pharisees seek to destroy Jesus (Matt 12:14);

  • one loses lifetrying to save it (Matt 16:25);

  • vineyard owner executes murderous tenants (Matt 21:41);

  • troops sent to destroy murderers (Matt 22:7);

  • one perishesby the sword (Matt 26:52);

  • crowd asks to destroy Jesus (Matt 27:20) >>>


destroy / perish exalt you to inherit the land ; (apollymi)

  • better that one mandiethan for whole nation to perish (John 11:50);

  • Insurrectionist/false messiah perishedat hands of Rome (Acts 5:37);

  • Israelites perish in the wilderness (1 Cor 10:9-10), or were destroyed there (Jude 5);

  • some perishedin the rebellion of Korah (Jude 11).


Greek scholar and New Testament translator R. F. Weymouth wrote:

“My mind fails to conceive a grosser misinterpretation of language than when the five or six strongest words which the Greek tongue possesses, signifying ‘destroy,’ or ‘destruction,’ are explained to mean maintaining an everlasting but wretched existence. To translate black as white is nothing to this.”


What about other phrases thought to suggest conscious unending torment
what about wrote:other phrasesthought to suggestconscious unending torment?


Seven times gnashing of teeth
(seven times) wrote:GNASHING OF TEETH

Matt 8:11-12 expelled to outer darkness

Matt 22:13 expelled to outer darkness

Matt 25:30 expelled to outer darkness

Luke 13:28 expelled from kingdom

Matt 24:50-51 expelled (after cut in pieces/severed)

Matt 13:40-42 expelled to furnace of fire

Matt 13:49-50 expelled to furnace of fire

(weeping and gnashing of teeth)


Gnashing of teeth
Gnashing wrote:of teeth

____________________________________

“. . . your fathers . . . killed [the prophets] who . . . announced the coming of the Righteous One, whose betrayers and murderers you have now become;

[T]hey were cut to the quick, and . . . began gnashing their teeth at him. (Acts 7:52, 54)


Gnashing of teeth1
Gnashing wrote:of teeth

____________________________________

The wicked will see [the righteous re-warded] and be vexed,    He will gnash his teeth and melt away;    The desire of the wicked will perish.

(Psalm 112:10)


Eternal punishment matt 25 46
eternal wrote: punishment(Matt 25:46)


  • ‘Eternal’ is a quality wrote:

  • (aion, aionios)

  • eternal salvation (Heb 5:6)

  • eternal redemption (Heb 9:1)

  • eternal destruction ( 2 Thes 1:9)

  • eternal judgment (Heb 6:2)

  • eternal punishment (Matt 25:46)


2. ‘Eternal’ results that do not end wrote:

eternal salvation (Heb 5:6)

eternal redemption(Heb 9:1)

eternal destruction ( 2 Thes 1:9)

eternal judgment (Heb 6:2)

eternal punishment(Matt 25:46)


Eternal punishment but what is punishment
eternal wrote:punishmentbut what is punishment?


Punishment: wrote: the penal conse-quences of wrongdoing, imposed under the law by a person with judicial authority.


MIGHT BE: wrote:

Fine -- Jail -- Prison --

Capital punishment


Eternal punishment defined
eternal punishment defined wrote:

[T]he Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking ven-geance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall be punished witheverlasting destruction. . . . (2 Thes 1:7-9 KJV)


Result is ‘eternal’ -- not the process wrote:‘When a very serious crime is punished by death, and the execution of the sentence takes only a minute, no laws consider that minute as the measure of the punishment, but rather the fact that the criminal is forever removed from the community of the living.’ – St. Augustine


Eternal fire matt 25 41
eternal wrote:fire(Matt 25:41)


1 eternal quality fire
1. eternal-quality wrote:fire

2. Unending-result fire

Sodom and Gomorrah . . . are exhibitedas anexample in undergoing the punishment ofeternal fire (Jude 7).


Summary -- rest of N.T. wrote:

New Testament

James


James
JAMES wrote:

  • Death (1:15)

  • Destruction (4:12)

  • Riches consume flesh like fire (5:3)

  • Fattened for day of slaughter (5:5)

  • Death (5:19)

    Which view most resembles this ?


New Testament wrote:

Acts


ACTS wrote:

Only three references to final judgment

_____________________________

* God has appointed a day when he will judge the world fairly by [Jesus] (17:30-31).

* Paul discussed righteousness, self-control and judgment to come with Felix, who became frightened (24:25).

* Whoever does not listen to Jesus “shall be utterly destroyed from among the people” (3:23).


Acts one word only
ACTS: ONE WORD ONLY wrote:

‘Utterly destroyed from among the people’

___________________________

Exolothreuo = ‘to destroy utterly, root out”

OT: (Greek version used by early church):

* Regular word for capital punishment

* word used in Flood story

NT: Destroyer (1 Cor 10:10; Heb 11:28)


New Testament wrote:

Paul


PAUL wrote:

death (Rom 6:23)

perish (Rom 2:12)

destruction (1 Cor 3:17; Phil 1:28; 3:19)

eternal destruction (2 Thes 1:9)

Also . . .

Wrath, anger, trouble, distress (Rom 2:6ff)

anathema/accursed (Gal 1:9; 1 Cor 16:22)

not enter God’s kingdom (Eph 5:5-6)


Plato and Paul use wrote:sameGreekwords for death (thanatos), destruction (apōleia), corruption (phthora), perish (olethros), and die (apothnēskō).

_______________

PAUL: these words portray the destiny of all who live and die rejecting God.

PLATO: these words will neverdescribe the immortal soul.


New Testament wrote:

Hebrews


Hebrews
HEBREWS wrote:

worse than physical death (2:2-3)

cursed and burned (6:8)

raging fire that consumes (10:27-31)

destroyed (10:39)

consuming fire (12:29)

More like view #1, #2, or #3?


New Testament wrote:

Peter & Jude


Peter jude
PETER & JUDE wrote:

destroy/perish (2 Pet 2:12)

blackest darkness (Jude 13)

like Flood like Sodom


New Testament wrote:

John


John wrote:

LAKE OF FIRE (AND BRIMSTONE)


But for the cowardly and unbelieving, [etc.] , their part will be in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone … (Rev 21:8).

_________________________________

ORIGIN -- Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire (Gen 19:24-25).


John will be in

SECOND DEATH


But for the cowardly and unbelieving, [etc.] , their part will be in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which IS the seconddeath(Rev 21:8).

_________________________________

CONTRAST

Names in “Book of Life” (Revelation)

“Eternal life” (Johannine generally)


John smoke ascending
JOHN will be in SMOKE ASCENDING


SOURCE: will be in

Abraham arose early in the morning ... and he looked down toward Sodom and Gomorrah, and . . . the smoke of the land ascended like the smoke of a furnace (Gen 19:27-28).


John smoke ascending forever
JOHN will be in SMOKE ASCENDING FOREVER


SOURCE: will be in

Its streams will be turned into pitch, and its loose earth intobrimstone, and its land will become burning pitch. It will not be quenched night or day; Its smoke will go up forever. From generation to generation it will be desolate . . . And He will stretch over it the line of desolationand the plumb line ofemptiness (Isa 34:8-11).


Alternatives perish or everlasting life john 3 16 death or eternal life rom 6 23

ALTERNATIVES will be in :‘perish or everlasting life’ (John 3:16)‘death’ or ‘eternal life’(Rom 6:23)


If the traditional doctrine is not required by Scripture . . . WHERE did it come from?HOW did it become so popular?



Greek philosophy vs bible teaching conditional immortality

Greek philosophy .

vs.

Bible teaching

(conditional immortality)


Socrates plato
SOCRATES & PLATO .

Every human

has a mortal

body, inhab-

ited by an

immortal

soul . . . .

469-399 B.C.424-348 B.C.


THE BIBLE PORTRAYS . . . . The human creature as wholly mortalEARTH (BODY) + BREATH (SPIRIT) LIVING BEING (SOUL) Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being (Gen 2:7).


God “ . alone possesses immortality”

(1 Tim 6:16).


HUMAN IMMORTALITY .

AlwaysNever

Saved Lost

Whole Person Naked Soul or Spirit

Resurrection Creation or now


We hear from … .

Apostolic Fathers


New Testament .

Restored biblical (O.T.) teaching

_________________

Apostolic Fathers

Didache, Barnabas, Ignatius, Clement

teach a fire that consumes

(Limited to biblical language)


We hear from … .

Apologists


Apologists .

Converted Greek Philosophers, brought pagan doctrine of immortal souls into Christian church.

Athenagoras (127-190 A.D.)

Tertullian (born 160 A.D.)


Athenagoras 127 190 a d
Athenagoras (127-190 A.D.) .

PLATO FIRST GOES TO CHURCH

"Since the cause of man's creation is …perpetual existence, [he] must be preserved forever."


Tertullian 160 200 a d
Tertullian (160-200? A.D.) .

SOUL DOES NOT

NEED SAVING

BECAUSE IT IS

IMMORTAL

ALREADY


Tertullian 160 200 a d1
Tertullian (160-200? A.D.) .

Matt 10:28 does not mean that God will really destroy the soul, for souls are immortal and can- not be destroyed.


We hear from … .

Alexandrians


Clement origen
Clement & Origen .

3rd century A.D.

_____________________________________________________

Apokatastasis

(restoration)

____________________________________________________________


We hear from … .

Arnobius


Arnobius d 330
Arnobius (d. 330) .

Rejected Platonism’s root (immortal souls) and fruit (unending conscious torment).


We hear from … .

St. Augustine


St augustine 354 430 a d
St. Augustine . (354-430 A.D.)________________

Answered pagan critics who denied possibility of eternal burning.

Endorsed Tertullian's view – set 'orthodoxy.'

Least scriptural part of The City of God.



Anselm 12 th c
Anselm (12 . th c.)

finite offense

infinite punishment

feudal justice

OT Divine criminal code – Herman Witsius


We hear from … .

Aquinas


Aquinas 13 th c
Aquinas (13 . th c.)

soul suffers first

punishment begins at death


We hear from … .

(Dante) Alighieri


Dante alighieri 14 th c
Dante Alighieri (14 . th c.)

Inferno, or (Divine) Comedy

“Cold as hell?”


We hear from … .

REFORMERS


Reformation stretching
REFORMATION . STRETCHING

1.

LUTHER A fine. sweet sleep . . .

philosophical proofs


Reformation push back
REFORMATION . PUSH-BACK

1.

LUTHER

2. SIR

THOMAS

MORE


Reformation defence
REFORMATION . DEFENCE

1.

LUTHER

2. SIR

THOMAS

MORE

3.

TYNDALE


Reformation politics
REFORMATION . POLITICS

1.

LUTHER

4. CALVIN

VS.

2. SIR ANABAPTISTS

THOMAS

MORE

3.

TYNDALE


Reformation politics1
REFORMATION . POLITICS

1.

LUTHER

4. CALVIN

VS.

2. SIR ANABAPTISTS

THOMAS

MORE

3. 5.

TYNDALE HEINRICH

BULLINGER


“It seems to be a general feature of the history of Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .


“It seems to be a general feature of the history of Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .

Orthodoxy merely guarded the ashes of the Reformation, rather than tending its flame.”

- Alister McGrath


Re formation continues eschatology
Re-formation continues: Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .Eschatology ______________________________________________________________________________

F.F. Bruce John Stott

Michael Green E. Earle Ellis

Philip E. Hughes John Stackhouse

John Franke Homer Hailey

Clark H. Pinnock Dale Moody

John Wenham Richard Bauckham

N. T. Wright Tom L. Robinson


We must finally ask … Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .

BIBLE

Church History

Why it matters


NOT Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .salvation issue …NOT fellowship issue …nevertheless important1. we speak in God’s name 2. impacts evangelism 3. impugns God’s character


NOT salvation issue … Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .NOT fellowship issue …nevertheless important1. we speak in God’s name 2. impacts evangelism 3. impugns God’s character


NOT salvation issue … Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .NOT fellowship issue …nevertheless important1. we speak in God’s name 2. impacts evangelism 3. impugns God’s character


It matters because we speak in god s name this impacts evangelism
it matters because Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .:we speak in God’s namethis impacts evangelism


It matters because we speak in god s name this impacts evangelism1
it matters because Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .: we speak in God’s namethis impacts evangelism


It matters because we speak in god s name this impacts evangelism it speaks about god s character
it matters because Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .: we speak in God’s name this impacts evangelismit speaks about God’s character


In conclusion the teaching we have examined tonight is not tricky difficult or complicated
In conclusion … Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .The teaching we have examined tonight is nottricky,difficult, or complicated.


The teaching we have examined tonight is not tricky difficult or complicated
The teaching we have examined tonight is not Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .tricky,difficult, or complicated.


The teaching we have examined tonight is not tricky difficult or complicated1
The teaching we have examined tonight is not Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .tricky,difficult, or complicated.


The teaching we have examined tonight is not tricky difficult or complicated2
The teaching we have examined tonight is not Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .tricky,difficult, or complicated.


In fact you already know two scripture verses that say it all
IN FACT, Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . . you already know twoScriptureverses that say it all . . .


The wages of sin is Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .death, but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Rom 6:23)


The wages of sin is Christian thought that a period of genuine creativity is immediately followed by a petrification and scholasticism . . .death, but the gift of God is eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Rom 6:23)


God loved and gave his Son, ‘that whoever believes in him should not perish,but have eternal life.”(John 3:16)


Perish eternal life
perish should not eternal life


LIFE OR DEATH should not


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