Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept

/ 53 []
Download Presentation
(4606) |   (0) |   (1)
Views: 80 | Added:
Rate Presentation: 0 0
Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept. EDU 8603 Educational Research Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D. Research. The systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems.
Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Educational research introduction to the concept l.jpgSlide 1

Educational Research: Introduction to the Concept

EDU 8603

Educational Research

Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.

Research l.jpgSlide 2


  • The systematic application of a family of methods employed to provide trustworthy information about problems

…an ongoing process based on many accumulated understandings and explanations that, when taken together lead to generalizations about problems and the development of theories

The basic steps of research l.jpgSlide 3

The basic steps of research...

Scientific and disciplined inquiry is an orderly process, involving:

recognition and identification of a topic to be studied (“problem”)

description and execution of procedures to collection information (“method”)

objective data analysis

statement of findings (“results”)

Types of research l.jpgSlide 4

Types of research...


…the process of collecting and analyzing information to develop or enhance a theory

Slide5 l.jpgSlide 5


…conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness for solving problems

Slide6 l.jpgSlide 6


…concerned with making decisions about the quality, effectiveness, or value of programs, products, or practices

The research continuum l.jpgSlide 7

The research continuum…



evaluation research

pure research



current problems

theory development

what works

why it works

produces concepts

provides data

Approaches to reasoning l.jpgSlide 8

Approaches to reasoning...


…developing generalizations from a limited number of specific observations or experiences

…highly dependent on the number and representativeness of the specific observations used to make the generalization

Slide9 l.jpgSlide 9


…developing specific predictions from general principles, observations, or experiences

…dependent on the truth of the generalizations used as a basis for its logic

Relating reasoning with research methods l.jpgSlide 10

Relating reasoning with research methods…

laboratory work

field work

evaluation research

pure research



researcher intersubjectivity

researcher objectivity

post-structuralism: depth

logical positivism: factual



Research methods l.jpgSlide 11

Research methods...


…collects and analyzes numerical data obtained from formal instruments

Slide12 l.jpgSlide 12


…collects and analyzes nonnumeric data over an extended period of time to situate meaning within a particular perspective or context

Quantitative methods l.jpgSlide 13

Quantitative methods...

  • descriptive research (“survey research”)

  • correlational research

  • causal-comparative research (“ex post facto research”)

  • experimental research

Slide14 l.jpgSlide 14

  • descriptive research (“survey research”)

…collects data in order to answer questions about the current status of the subject or topic of study

…uses formal instruments to study preferences, attitudes, practices, concerns, or interests of a sample

Slide15 l.jpgSlide 15

  • correlational research

…determines whether and to what degree a relationship exists between two or more variables

…the presence of a correlation does not indicate a cause-effect relationship primarily due to multiple confounding factors

Correlation coefficient r l.jpgSlide 16

Correlation coefficient (r)…




strong positive

strong negative

no relationship

A positive correlationship l.jpgSlide 17

A positive correlationship…



A negative correlationship l.jpgSlide 18

A negative correlationship…



No correlationship l.jpgSlide 19

No correlationship…



No correlationship20 l.jpgSlide 20

No correlationship…



Slide21 l.jpgSlide 21

  • causal-comparative research (“ex post facto research”)

…at least two different groups are compared on a dependent variable or measure of performance (called the “effect”) because the independent variable (called the “cause”) has already occurred or cannot be manipulated

Variable l.jpgSlide 22


…a concept (e.g., intelligence, height, aptitude) that can assume any one of a range of values

Research variables l.jpgSlide 23

Research variables...


…an activity or characteristic believed to make a difference with respect to some behavior

…(syn.) experimental variable, cause, treatment

Slide24 l.jpgSlide 24


…the change or difference occurring a a result of the independent variable

…(syn.) criterion variable, effect, outcome, posttest

Slide25 l.jpgSlide 25

  • experimental research

…the researcher selects participants and divides them into two or more groups having similar characteristics and, then, applies the treatment(s) to the groups and measures the effects upon the groups

Quantitative method decision tree l.jpgSlide 26

Quantitative method decision tree…

Is there a cause-effect relationship?



Is the independent variable manipulated?

Is there a relationship or prediction being made?









Qualitative methods l.jpgSlide 27

Qualitative methods...

  • historical research

  • grounded theory

  • ethnography

  • phenomenology

  • ethology

  • case study

  • ethnomethodology

  • action research

  • symbolic interaction

Slide28 l.jpgSlide 28

  • historical research

…studies available data to study, understand, and interpret past events

Slide29 l.jpgSlide 29

  • ethnography

…studies cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural settings

Slide30 l.jpgSlide 30

  • ethology

…compares the origins, characteristics, and culture of different societies

Slide31 l.jpgSlide 31

  • ethnomethodology

…studies how people make sense of their everyday activities in order to behave in socially accepted ways

Slide32 l.jpgSlide 32

  • symbolic interaction

…investigates how people construct meaning and shared perspectives by interacting with others

Slide33 l.jpgSlide 33

  • grounded theory

…investigates how inductively-derived theory about phenomenon is grounded in the data of a particular setting

Slide34 l.jpgSlide 34

  • phenomenology

…considers how the experience of particular participants exhibits a unique perspective

Slide35 l.jpgSlide 35

  • case study

…examines the characteristics of a particular entity, phenomenon, or person

Slide36 l.jpgSlide 36

  • action research

…practitioner-based systematic reflection upon practice aimed at improving professional practice

Slide37 l.jpgSlide 37

Generally speaking, qualitative researchers….

…spend a great deal of time in the settings being studied (fieldwork)

…rely on themselves as the main instrument of data collection (subjectivity; intersubjectivity)

…analyze data using interpretative lenses

Slide38 l.jpgSlide 38

…employ expressive language and voice in descriptions and explanations

…seek depth of perspective (i.e., “waves of data” requiring ongoing interpretation)

…judged in terms of believability, trustworthiness, coherence, and logic of interpretations

Types of criticism l.jpgSlide 39

Types of criticism...


…evaluates the worth or trustworthiness of the content of the data


…assesses the authenticity of the data source

Slide40 l.jpgSlide 40

  • data sources…




Limitations of the scientific and disciplined inquiry approach l.jpgSlide 41

Limitations of the scientific and disciplined inquiry approach…

  • not able to investigate philosophical and/or moral/ethical problems (“shoulds” and “oughts”) only factual matters

  • the presence of intervening and confounding variables make assertions probable rather than proven

  • imperfections in sampling, instruments, procedures

Mini quiz l.jpgSlide 42


  • Identify the research methodology…

…a study of the research on the effect of anxiety on achievement from 1900 to 1990


Slide43 l.jpgSlide 43

…a study of the effect of socioeconomic status on self-concept


Slide44 l.jpgSlide 44

…a study to compare the achievement of two groups: one group taught in an anxiety-producing environment and one group taught in an anxiety reducing environment


Slide45 l.jpgSlide 45

…a study of the personal and educational interactions in a group of teachers developing social studies standards for a high school curriculum


Slide46 l.jpgSlide 46

…a study to compare the achievement of a group of students classified as high-anxious and a group classified as low-anxious


Slide47 l.jpgSlide 47

…a study of teachers’ attitudes toward unions


Slide48 l.jpgSlide 48

…a study of the effect of large-group versus small-group instruction upon achievement


Slide49 l.jpgSlide 49

…a study of SAT preparation by three students, with particular emphasis on their anxiety


Slide50 l.jpgSlide 50

…a study to determine the relationship between scores on an anxiety scale and scores on an achievement measure


Slide51 l.jpgSlide 51

…a survey of teachers to determine how and to what degree they believe anxiety affects achievement


This module has focused on l.jpgSlide 52

This module has focused on...

introductory research concepts

…which enable educators to access, understand, and evaluate research findings and the claims purported by researchers

The next module will focus on l.jpgSlide 53

The next module will focus on...

research problems the foundation for a literature review and the formulation of a hypothesis

Copyright © 2015 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro