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Early views of mental illness. Mental illness as sign of witchcraft or demonic possession Mental illness as moral deficiency But, even in medieval times, there were some who proposed biological causes for mental illness, and treated those who were ill with compassion.

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early views of mental illness
Early views of mental illness
  • Mental illness as sign of witchcraft or demonic possession
  • Mental illness as moral deficiency
  • But, even in medieval times, there were some who proposed biological causes for mental illness, and treated those who were ill with compassion
philippe pinel 1745 1826
Philippe Pinel (1745-1826)
  • “Removed the chains” from asylum patients in Paris
  • Improved nutrition, hygiene, living conditions
  • Used an early form of behavior modification (rewards & punishments) to bring order into patients’ lives
other early reformers
Other early reformers
  • William Tuke (1732-1822)
  • Benjamin Rush (1745-1813)
    • “Bloodletting” as treatment
    • “Gyrator” treatment
    • “Tranquilizer” chair
dorothea dix 1802 1887
Dorothea Dix (1802-1887)
  • Crusaded to improve care of patients in state asylums, jails, & poorhouses
  • Toured institutions, then wrote detailed critiques of what she saw
  • Played a role in the creation of 47 new hospitals and schools
  • Helped the mentally ill live out their lives with more dignity
clifford beers 1876 1943
Clifford Beers (1876-1943)
  • Actually believed that the mentally ill could be cured
  • Yale graduate, hospitalized for depression after a suicide attempt; spent 3 years in mental institutions himself
  • Founded National Committee for Mental Hygiene
the development of hypnosis
The development of hypnosis
  • Anton Mesmer’s “animal magnetism”
  • John Elliotson: petitioned to study the anesthetic effects of mesmerism
  • James Esdaile: did actually study mesmerism as anesthesia, in India
  • James Braid: actually coined the term “neurhypnology,” later shortened to “hypnosis”
hypnotism controversies
Hypnotism controversies
  • Liebeault & Bernheim: concept of suggestibility as basis for hypnosis
  • Charcot: considered the ability to be hypnotized to be closely related to hysteria (manifestation of physical symptoms without an underlying physical problem)
  • Is hypnotic suggestibility normal, or a sign of mental disorder?
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