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Classification. Chapter 18. 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity. Living things must be described 1.5 million identified and named species Identification and naming requires organization Classification systems provide this organization Taxonomy – study and assign scientifically accepted names.

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classification

Classification

Chapter 18

18 1 finding order in diversity
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • Living things must be described
  • 1.5 million identified and named species
  • Identification and naming requires organization
  • Classification systems provide this organization
  • Taxonomy – study and assign scientifically accepted names
18 1 finding order in diversity3
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • Common names vary too much
  • First attempts described physical characteristics
  • What are the flaws of this method?
    • Too long of descriptions
    • Too many varying observations
18 1 finding order in diversity4
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • Carolus Linnaeus – Father of taxonomy
  • Developed two word naming system
  • Always written in italics or underlined
    • Musca domestica or Musca domestica
  • First word is the genus, second is the species
18 1 finding order in diversity5
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • Linnaeus’s system consisted of 7 levels
    • Domain (Largest)
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Species (Smallest)
  • Each level is called a taxon (taxa)
18 1 finding order in diversity6
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity
  • Levels up always group more organisms together
  • Families are grouped into orders
  • Classes are composed of similar orders
  • Classes make up phylums
18 2 modern evolutionary classification
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Anything above species has been “invented”
  • How would Linnaeus classify these:
    • Dolphin
    • Hermit crab
    • Sparrow
    • Cow
    • Snake
    • Monkey
    • Bull Shark
18 2 modern evolutionary classification8
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Phylogeny – evolutionary relationships among organisms
  • Used now instead of physical similarities
  • Evolutionary classification
  • Species in the same genus are more related than species from another genus
18 2 modern evolutionary classification9
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • All members of genus share a common ancestor
  • This can be traced through a phylogenic tree
  • The higher the level, the farther back the ancestor
  • The more recent the common ancestor, the more related
18 2 modern evolutionary classification11
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Derived Characters – characters in recent members, but not older members
  • Result of evolution
    • Demands force new innovations
  • Cladogram – using derived characters to determine evolutionary relationships
18 2 modern evolutionary classification12
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • A lot of classification methods are based on appearance
  • USUALLY, this works…why?
  • DNA/RNA are similar in related species
  • These substances are used to make comparisons
18 2 modern evolutionary classification14
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Evolutionary time can also be measured with DNA
  • Molecular Clock – use DNA to estimate the length of time species have been evolving
  • Relies on mutations to repeat
  • Not just one clock running at a time
18 3 kingdoms and domains
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Linnaeus started with two kingdoms:
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  • Scientists realized they needed more
  • This lead to six kingdoms
18 3 kingdoms and domains16
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Domains – larger and includes the kingdoms
  • Three kingdoms
    • Eukarya
    • Archaea
    • Archaebacteria
  • As more discoveries are made, more kingdoms may be made
18 3 kingdoms and domains17
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Domain Bacteria
    • Unicellular
    • Prokaryotic
    • Thick, rigid cell walls around a cell membrane
    • Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
18 3 kingdoms and domains18
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Domain Archaea
    • Unicellular
    • Prokaryotic
    • Live in extreme environments
      • Volcanic hot springs
      • Brine pools
      • Black mud devoid of oxygen
    • Lack peptidoglycan
18 3 kingdoms and domains19
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Domain Eukarya
    • All organisms have a nucleus
    • Consists of four kingdoms
      • Protista
      • Fungi
      • Plantae
      • Anamalia
18 3 kingdoms and domains20
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Kingdom Protista
    • Members have the greatest diversity
    • Cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi
    • Most single celled organisms
    • Some are multi-celled algae
    • Some are photosynthetic
18 3 kingdoms and domains21
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Kingdom Fungi
    • All are heterotrophs
    • Feed on dead or decaying organic matter
    • Most recognizable is the mushroom
    • Most are multicellular, others (Yeast) are unicellular
18 3 kingdoms and domains22
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Multicellular
    • All are photosynthetic autotrophs
    • Non-mobile
18 3 kingdoms and domains23
18-3 Kingdoms and Domains
  • Kingdom Anamalia
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophs
    • Mobile
    • Incredible diversity
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