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Classification. Chapter 18. 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity. Living things must be described 1.5 million identified and named species Identification and naming requires organization Classification systems provide this organization Taxonomy – study and assign scientifically accepted names.

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Classification l.jpg

Classification

Chapter 18


18 1 finding order in diversity l.jpg
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity

  • Living things must be described

  • 1.5 million identified and named species

  • Identification and naming requires organization

  • Classification systems provide this organization

  • Taxonomy – study and assign scientifically accepted names


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18-1 Finding Order in Diversity

  • Common names vary too much

  • First attempts described physical characteristics

  • What are the flaws of this method?

    • Too long of descriptions

    • Too many varying observations


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18-1 Finding Order in Diversity

  • Carolus Linnaeus – Father of taxonomy

  • Developed two word naming system

  • Always written in italics or underlined

    • Musca domestica or Musca domestica

  • First word is the genus, second is the species


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18-1 Finding Order in Diversity

  • Linnaeus’s system consisted of 7 levels

    • Domain (Largest)

    • Kingdom

    • Phylum

    • Class

    • Order

    • Family

    • Species (Smallest)

  • Each level is called a taxon (taxa)


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18-1 Finding Order in Diversity

  • Levels up always group more organisms together

  • Families are grouped into orders

  • Classes are composed of similar orders

  • Classes make up phylums


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18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification

  • Anything above species has been “invented”

  • How would Linnaeus classify these:

    • Dolphin

    • Hermit crab

    • Sparrow

    • Cow

    • Snake

    • Monkey

    • Bull Shark


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18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification

  • Phylogeny – evolutionary relationships among organisms

  • Used now instead of physical similarities

  • Evolutionary classification

  • Species in the same genus are more related than species from another genus


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18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification

  • All members of genus share a common ancestor

  • This can be traced through a phylogenic tree

  • The higher the level, the farther back the ancestor

  • The more recent the common ancestor, the more related



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18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification

  • Derived Characters – characters in recent members, but not older members

  • Result of evolution

    • Demands force new innovations

  • Cladogram – using derived characters to determine evolutionary relationships


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18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification

  • A lot of classification methods are based on appearance

  • USUALLY, this works…why?

  • DNA/RNA are similar in related species

  • These substances are used to make comparisons



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18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification

  • Evolutionary time can also be measured with DNA

  • Molecular Clock – use DNA to estimate the length of time species have been evolving

  • Relies on mutations to repeat

  • Not just one clock running at a time


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Linnaeus started with two kingdoms:

    • Plantae

    • Animalia

  • Scientists realized they needed more

  • This lead to six kingdoms


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Domains – larger and includes the kingdoms

  • Three kingdoms

    • Eukarya

    • Archaea

    • Archaebacteria

  • As more discoveries are made, more kingdoms may be made


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Domain Bacteria

    • Unicellular

    • Prokaryotic

    • Thick, rigid cell walls around a cell membrane

    • Cell wall made of peptidoglycan


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Domain Archaea

    • Unicellular

    • Prokaryotic

    • Live in extreme environments

      • Volcanic hot springs

      • Brine pools

      • Black mud devoid of oxygen

    • Lack peptidoglycan


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Domain Eukarya

    • All organisms have a nucleus

    • Consists of four kingdoms

      • Protista

      • Fungi

      • Plantae

      • Anamalia


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Kingdom Protista

    • Members have the greatest diversity

    • Cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi

    • Most single celled organisms

    • Some are multi-celled algae

    • Some are photosynthetic


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Kingdom Fungi

    • All are heterotrophs

    • Feed on dead or decaying organic matter

    • Most recognizable is the mushroom

    • Most are multicellular, others (Yeast) are unicellular


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Kingdom Plantae

    • Multicellular

    • All are photosynthetic autotrophs

    • Non-mobile


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18-3 Kingdoms and Domains

  • Kingdom Anamalia

    • Multicellular

    • Heterotrophs

    • Mobile

    • Incredible diversity


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