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Graphs, Good and Bad MA155 Chapter 10 Organizing Data The first step in data analysis is to display the data in a graph. Look first for the overall pattern in the data, and then for striking exceptions to that pattern.

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graphs good and bad

Graphs, Good and Bad

MA155

Chapter 10

organizing data
Organizing Data
  • The first step in data analysis is to display the data in a graph.
  • Look first for the overall pattern in the data, and then for striking exceptions to that pattern.
  • After looking at the graphs, you can use well-chosen numerical descriptions.
describing distributions
Describing Distributions
  • Distributions
  • The distribution of a variable tells us what value the variable takes and how often each value occurs.
data tables
Data Tables
  • Clearly Labeled
  • Units are stated
  • Source of Data
pie charts
Pie Charts
  • A whole is divided into parts
  • Steps
    • Draw a circle
    • Make wedges that are representative of the proportion
  • The parts do make a whole
bar graph
Bar Graph
  • The height of each bar shows the proportion
  • It clearly shows the results
  • They are easy to make
types of variables
Categorical Variable

Places an individual into one of several groups or categories

Quantitative Variable

Takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations make sense

Types of Variables
categorical examples
Categorical Examples
  • Race
  • Sex
  • Employment Status
  • Hair Color
  • Type of Car
quantitative examples
Quantitative Examples
  • Measurements made on scales of equal units
  • Examples
    • Height in inches
    • Reaction time in seconds
    • Temperature in degrees Celsius
remember
Remember
  • Not all numbers carry the same information
  • Luke is a skateboarder.
  • Luke finished first at the 2000 Gravity Games
  • Luke scored a 92.60 on the street course.
  • The scale of measurement depends on the measuring process, not on the property measured.
displaying distributions
Displaying Distributions
  • To display the distribution of a variable measured in a nominal scale, use a pie chart or a bar graph
  • Pie charts emphasize how individual counts or percents are related to the whole
  • Bar graphs emphasize how quantities compare with one another.
  • Use pie charts and bar graphs when displaying the distribution of categorical variables.
pictograms
Pictograms

Source: http://www.usatoday.com

line graphs
Line Graphs
  • Show the behavior of a variable over time
  • Horizontal Axis Time
  • Vertical Axis Scale of Variable
scales
Scales
  • The scales of a line graph can cause a graph to be misleading
making good graphs
Making Good Graphs
  • Must be clearly labeled
  • Units stated
  • Source of Data
  • Make the data stand out!
homework
Homework
  • Read Chapter 11
  • Suggested Problems:
  • 10.1, 10.3, 10.9, 10.13, 10.17, 10.27