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PowerLecture A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Link Tool for. Changing Earth Exploring Geology and Evolution 5 th Edition James S. Monroe   |  Reed Wicander. academic.cengage.com/earthsci. Chapter 1. Understanding Earth A Dynamic and Evolving Planet. Introduction. Geology

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PowerLecture

A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Link Tool

for

Changing Earth

Exploring Geology and Evolution

5th Edition

James S. Monroe   |  Reed Wicander

academic.cengage.com/earthsci


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Chapter 1

Understanding Earth

A Dynamic and Evolving Planet


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Introduction

Geology

Geology is a complex, integrated system of related parts, components, or sub-systems that interact in an organized fashion, affecting one another in various ways.


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Introduction

The principal subsystems of the earth are the:

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Hydrosphere

Lithosphere

Mantle

Core


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Introduction

The interaction of these subsystems has resulted in a dynamically changing planet in which matter and energy are continuously recycled into different forms.


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What is geology?

  • Geology is the study of the Earth.

    • Physical geologyis concerned with the materials and processes which compose and operate on the surface of, and within, Earth.

    • Historical geology is concerned with the origin and evolution of Earth's continents, oceans, atmosphere, and life.


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What is geology?

Geologists are employed in diverse occupations.

  • Principle occupations include:

    • Mineral and

      energy resource

      exploration

    • Solving

      environmental

      problems

    • Predicting

      natural disasters


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Geology and the Formulation of Theories

  • What is a theory?

    • It is arrived at through the scientific method, which involves

      • gathering and analyzing facts

      • formulating hypotheses to explain the phenomenon

      • testing the hypotheses

      • and finally proposing a theory.

    • The hypotheses is a tentative explanation.

    • A scientific theory is a testable explanation for some natural phenomenon, that is supported by a large body of evidence.


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How Does Geology Relate to the Human Experience?

Geology pervades our everyday lives and is a part of many aspects of human experience, including the arts and literature.

The range of environmental problems and issues of concern to society require a basic understanding of geology.


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How does geology affect our daily lives?

Natural Events

Economics and Politics

Our Role as Decision makers

Consumers and Citizens

Sustainable Development


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Global Geologic and Environmental Issues Facing Humankind

Most scientists would argue that overpopulation is the greatest problem facing the world today.

Increasingly large numbers of people must be fed, housed, and clothed, with a minimal impact on the environment.


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Global Geologic and Environmental Issues Facing Humankind

  • The greenhouse effect is the retention of heat in the atmosphere, which results in an increase in the temperature of Earth’s surface and atmosphere, thus producingglobal warming.


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Origin of the Universe

Did it begin with a Big Bang?

In the Big Bang theory, the universe began approximately 15 billion years ago.

An extremely dense, hot body of matter expanded and cooled


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Origin of the Universe

How do we know? Evidence for the Big Bang:

the universe is expanding from a central point.

The entire universe has a pervasive and constant background radiation, thought to be the faint afterglow of the Big Bang.


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Our Solar System

Its Origin and Evolution

TheSolar Systemformed from a rotating cloud of interstellar matter about 4.6 billion years ago.

This cloud, upon condensing, collapsed under the influence of gravity and flattened into a rotating disk.

Thesun, planets, and moonsformed within this disk.


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Earth

  • Its Place in Our Solar System

    • Earth formed from a swirling eddy of nebular material 4.6 billion years ago, accreting as a solid body and soon thereafter differentiated into a layered planet during a period of internal heating.


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

Earth has continuously changed during its 4.6 billion year existence as a result of interactions between its various subsystems and cycles.


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

  • Earth is composed of 3 concentric layers.

    • Core

    • Mantle

    • Crust.


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The core consists of

a small,solid innerregion

a larger, liquid, outer portion

Composed ofironand a small amount ofnickel.

The Core

Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

The mantle surrounds the core and is divided into:

asolid lower mantle

anasthenospherethatbehaves plasticallyand flows slowly

asolid upper mantle.

Composed primarily ofperidotite, an igneous rock made of olivine.

The Mantle


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

The outermost layer, the crust,

is divided into:

thickcontinental crust

thinoceanic crust

The Crust


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

The Asthenosphere

Surrounds the lower mantle

Behaves plastically and slowly flows

Partial melting in the asthenosphere generates magma(molten rock) that rises to the earth’s surface.


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

The Lithosphere

Thecrust and upper mantlemake up the lithosphere which forms thesolid outer layersof the Earth.


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

Plate Tectonic Theory

The lithosphere is composed of rigid platesthat diverge, converge, or slide sideways past one another as theymove over the asthenosphere



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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

Plate Tectonic Theory

Volcanoes and earthquakes occur at the boundaries between the plates.


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Why Earth is a Dynamic and Evolving Planet

Plate Tectonic Theory

Plate tectonic theory is a unifying explanation for many geologic features and events, helping us understand the composition and internal processes of Earth on a global scale.


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The Rock Cycle

  • A rock is a solid aggregate of one or more minerals, as well as non-crystalline matter such as natural glass or organic material like coal.

    • There are three major groups of rocks

      • Igneous

      • Sedimentary

      • Metamorphic


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The Rock Cycle

Igneous Rocks form from the crystallization of magma as it cools or the consolidation of volcanic ejecta.

Intrusive igneous rock crystallizes beneath the earth’s surface.

Extrusive igneous rockcrystallizes and cools at the earth’s surface. At times it cools so fast that it forms a glass or ash.

Granite

Intrusive Igneous Rock

Basalt

Extrusive Igneous Rock


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The Rock Cycle

  • Sedimentary Rocks are typically deposited in layers formed from:

  • rock/mineral fragments

  • precipitation of mineralsfrom solution

  • the compaction of plant and animal remains.

Limestone

Precipitation from seawater

Conglomerate

Forms from river gravels


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The Rock Cycle

  • Metamorphic Rocks form from alteration of other rocks, usually by:

  • Heat

  • Pressure

  • Chemically active fluids

Gneiss

Quartzite


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The Rock Cycle

The rock cycle illustrates the interactions between Earth’s internal and external processes and how the three rock groups are interrelated.


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The Rock Cycle

  • How are the rock cycle and plate tectonics related?

  • Plate movement is the

    driving mechanism of the

    rock cycle. Plate inter-

    action determines, to

    some extent, which of the

    three rock groups will form.


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Organic Evolution and the History of Life

  • The theory of organic evolutionstates:

    • that all living things are related and

    • have descended with modification from organisms living in the past.

  • Charles Darwin proposed that the mechanism ofnatural selectionresults in survival reproductive age of those organisms best suited to their environment.

  • Fossils, the remains of once-living organisms provide the evidence for evolution and a history of life before humans.


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Organic Evolution and Plate Tectonics

Together the theories of plate tectonics and organic evolution have changed the way we view our planet.


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Geologic Time

An appreciation of theimmensity of geologic timeis central to understanding the evolution of the Earth and its’ life.

Geologic time differs from the human perspective of time

Earth goes through cycles of much longer duration than the human perspective of time

The immense span of time encompassed by the Earth's existence and geological processes sets geology apart

The geologic time scale is the calendar that geologists use to date past events in Earth’s history.


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Geologic Time and Uniformitarianism

  • Uniformitarianism forms a cornerstone of geology. It is a fundamental tenet of geology.

    • This principle states that the laws of nature have remained unchanged through time and thus, that the processes observed today have also operated in the past, though possibly at different rates.

    • Therefore, to understand and interpret geologic events from evidence preserved in rocks, geologists must first understand present-day processes in rocks.


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How does the study of geology benefit us?

  • Understanding how the Earth’s subsystems work will help ensure the survival of the human species.

  • It will help us to understand how our actions affect the delicate balance between these systems.



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