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INDUSTRIAL BOILER MACT (40 CFR 63 Subpart DDDDD) Atlanta, Georgia May 24, 2006 IMPORTANT DATES Proposal Date – January 13, 2003 Promulgation Date – September 13, 2004 Compliance Date Existing units - September 13, 2007 New units – startup INDUSTRIAL BOILER MACT

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INDUSTRIAL BOILER MACT(40 CFR 63 Subpart DDDDD)

Atlanta, Georgia

May 24, 2006


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IMPORTANT DATES

  • Proposal Date – January 13, 2003

  • Promulgation Date – September 13, 2004

  • Compliance Date

    • Existing units - September 13, 2007

    • New units – startup


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INDUSTRIAL BOILER MACT

  • Source categories included:

    • Industrial Boilers

    • Institutional/Commercial Boilers

    • Process Heaters

      • Indirect-fired – combustion gases do not come in contact with process materials.


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EMISSIONS LIMITSExisting Units

  • Existing large solid fuel units

    PM -- 0.07 lb/million Btu, OR TSM – 0.001 lb/million Btu

    HCl -- 0.09 lb/million Btu (~ 90 ppm)

    Hg – 9 lb/trillion Btu

  • Existing limited use solid fuel units

    PM -- 0.21 lb/million Btu, OR TSM – 0.004 lb/million Btu

  • No emissions standards for:

    • existing small solid fuel units

    • existing liquid fuel units

    • existing gaseous fuel units

  • No work practice standards


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EMISSION LIMITSand WORK PRACTICE STANDARDSNew Units

  • New solid fuel units

    PM -- 0.025 lb/million Btu, OR TSM 0.0003 lb/million Btu

    HCl -- 0.02 lb/million Btu (20 ppm)

    Hg -- 3 lb/trillion Btu

    CO -- 400 ppm @ 7% oxygen (NOT FOR SMALL UNITS)

  • New liquid fuel units

    PM -- 0.03 lb/million Btu

    HCl -- 0.0005 lb/million Btu (large units)

    0.0009 lb/million Btu (small and limited use units)

    CO – 400 ppm @ 3% oxygen (NOT FOR SMALL UNITS)

  • New gaseous fuel-fired units

    CO – 400 ppm @ 3% oxygen (NOT FOR SMALL UNITS)


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COMPLIANCE OPTIONS

  • Conduct stack emission tests

  • Conduct fuel analysis

  • Emissions averaging

    • (large solid fuel units only)

  • Health-based compliance alternatives for HCl and TSM


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COMPLIANCE TESTING

  • Performance tests (stacks tests)

    • Annual performance tests

    • Based on average of 3 test runs

    • Based on worst fuel type or mixture

      AND/OR

  • Fuel analyses

    • Initial and every 5 years

    • Each new fuel type

    • Based 90% confidence level of minimum 3 fuel samples

    • Based on worst fuel type or mixture


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COMPLIANCE TESTINGPerformance Tests Requirements

  • Listed in Table 5 of Subpart DDDDD of Part 63

  • Common EPA test methods for PM, TSM, HCl, mercury, and CO limits

    • EPA Method 1: sampling location/traverse points

    • EPA Method 2: velocity/volumetric flowrate

    • EPA Method 3: oxygen/CO2 concentration

    • EPA Method 4: moisture content

    • EPA Method 19: converting concentrations to lb/MMBtu by using F-factor

  • For PM

    • EPA Methods 5 or 17

  • For TSM

    • EPA Method 29

  • For HCl

    • EPA Method 26 or 26A

  • For mercury

    • EPA Method 29 or 101A

    • ASTM D6522-00 or PTC 19, Part 10

  • For CO

    • EPA Methods 10, 10A, or 10B

    • ASTM D6522-00 (natural gas only)


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COMPLIANCE TESTINGFuel Analysis Requirements

  • Listed in Table 6 to Subpart DDDDD

  • Required steps

    • Collect samples (using procedure in 63.7521(c) or ASTM D2234-00

    • Composite fuel samples (63.7521(c))

    • Prepare composite samples (ASTM D2013-01)

    • Determine heat content (ASTM D5865-03a)

    • Determine moisture content (ASTM D3173-02)

    • Determine HAP concentration (Listed method or equivalent)

    • Convert HAP concentration to lb/million Btu


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COMPLIANCE TESTINGFuel Analysis Requirements (cont.)

  • Must use equation 8 to demonstrate compliance

    • One-sided z-statistic test

    • P90 = mean + (SD * t)

      • P90 = 90th percentile confidence level

      • Mean = Arithmetic average concentration in the fuel samples

      • SD = Standard deviation in the fuel samples

      • t = t distribution critical value for 90th percentile (0.1) probability for appropriate degrees of freedom (number of samples minus one) obtained from Distribution Critical Value Table.

  • Based on worst fuel type or mixture


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SPECIAL TESTING REQUIREMENTS

  • New liquid fuel that burn only fossil fuel and do not burn residual oil (40 CFR 63.7506(a))

    • Not required to conduct performance tests for PM and HCl

    • Must submit documentation

    • Must still demonstrate compliance with CO limit

  • Use of alternative test methods

    • Must petition EPA for approval (40 CFR 63.7)


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COMPLIANCE MONITORING

  • Continuous compliance based on monitoring and maintaining operating limits

  • Operating limits

    • For PM, TSM and mercury limits

      • Opacity (for dry systems)

        • Existing units – 20% opacity (6 minute average)

        • New units – 10% opacity (1 hour block average)

      • Control device parameters (for wet systems)

        • Established during initial compliance test

      • Fuel (type or mixture)

        • When compliance based on fuel analysis

    • For HCl

      • Scrubber parameters (pH, pressure drop, liquid flow, sorbent injection rate)

        • Established during initial compliance test

      • Fuel (type or mixture)

        • When compliance based on fuel analysis


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COMPLIANCE MONITORING (cont.)

  • CO Monitoring (new units only)

    • CEM for large units > 100 million Btu/hr

    • Annual CO tests for other new units

    • Exempt data from <50% load and based on 30-day average.


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Additional Compliance Provisions

  • Emission Averaging

    • Only existing large solid fuel units

    • Initial compliance based on maximum capacity

    • Continuous compliance on a 12-month rolling average basis

      • Each monthly calculation based on monthly fuel use and previous compliance test results for each boiler

    • Must maintain, at a minimum, the emission controls employed on the effective date


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Additional Compliance ProvisionHealth-Based Compliance Alternatives

  • Alternative compliance options available for the HCl limit and the total selected metals limit (TSM)

    • HCl: emissions of HCl and Cl2

    • TSM: emissions of manganese

  • Sources that comply with source-wide health-based alternative for HCl do not have to comply with the technology-based HCl limit on an individual boiler basis

  • Sources that comply with source-wide health-based alternative for manganese can ignore manganese when determining compliance with the TSM limit on an individual boiler basis


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How to Comply with Health-Based Compliance Options

  • Lookup table analysis

  • Site-specific risk assessment


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How to Conduct a Lookup Table Analysis: Overview

  • Determine maximum hourly emission rates from each appropriate subpart DDDDD boiler or process heater

    • HCl and Cl2 or Mn

  • Calculate total emission rate for source

  • Locate appropriate allowable emission rate from lookup table

  • Compare source’s emission rate with allowable emission rate


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How to Conduct a Lookup Table Analysis: Emissions Determination

  • Emissions tests

    • HCl alternative: Must test for HCl and Cl2

    • TSM alternative: Must test for Mn

  • Fuel analysis

    • HCl alternative: Assume all chlorine detected emitted as Cl2

    • TSM alternative: Assume all Mn detected is emitted


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How to Conduct a Site-Specific Risk Assessment Determination

  • Refer to EPA’s Air Toxics Risk Assessment Reference Library (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/fera/risk_atra_main.html)

  • General outline of process:

    • Collect emissions information (HCl, Cl2, Mn)

    • Identify relevant source parameters for modeling

      • stack heights, stack diameters, gas exit velocities, etc.

    • Perform dispersion/exposure modeling

    • Calculate an estimate of risk to the individual most exposed (Hazard quotient (HQ) for Mn and hazard index (HI) for HCl and Cl2)

      • HQ: The ratio of a level of exposure for a single substance to a reference level (e.g., RfC) for that substance

      • HI: The sum of more than one hazard quotient

    • You are eligible for the alternative compliance option if your maximum chronic inhalation HI or HQ is < 1.0


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Petitions For Reconsideration Determination

  • Three petitions for reconsideration were received

    • General Electric Company

    • Joint petition

      • NRDC

      • EIP (Environmental Integrity Project)

    • EIP

  • Two petitions for judicial review

    • Jointly filed by NRDC, Sierra Club, and EIP

      • Issues same as in reconsideration petition

    • American Public Power-Ohio (and 6 municipalities)

      • EPA exceeded its authority in imposing standards on small municipal utility boilers


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GE Petition Determination

  • Issue

    • Requests clarification that the rule allows for testing at the common stack rather than each duct to the stack

    • No opportunity to provide comments since the proposed rule did not contain regulatory text for the emissions averaging provision

    • Common stack testing is handled on a case-by-case basis by OECA/Regions

      • OECA’s general policy is that each duct to a common stack must be tested

  • Proposed amendment allowing testing of common stack in certain situation – October 31, 2005


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NRDC – EIP Petition Determination

  • Seeking reconsideration on:

    • Lack of standards for all HAP emitted on all subcategories

    • Health-based compliance alternatives

  • Granted petition and requested comment on June 27, 2005

  • Published final action on December 28, 2005

    • Retained health-based compliance alternatives


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INFORMATION AND CONTACT Determination

  • Implementation tools (timelines, initial notification, state/local contacts, Q/A) and information on the MACT rulemaking for industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters is available on EPA’s web site at:

    • www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/boiler/boilerpg.html

  • An electronic version of public docket (including public comments) is available at:

    • www.regulations.gov

    • Search for docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058

  • Contact: Compliance Contact:

    • Jim Eddinger Greg Fried (OECA)

    • 919-541-5426 202-564-7016

    • [email protected]@epa.gov

      Risk Contact

      Scott Jenkins

      919-541-1167

      [email protected]


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ANY QUESTIONS? Determination


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