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Bicycle Policies in Denmark Behavioural and Political Aspects Kick Off Workshop Klaipėda, 15 April 2003 Thomas Krag Thomas Krag Mobility Advice Contents Introduction to cycling in Denmark National and international cycle policies The bicycle policy of Copenhagen Paradoxes and challenges

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bicycle policies in denmark behavioural and political aspects

Bicycle Policies in DenmarkBehavioural and Political Aspects

Kick Off Workshop

Klaipėda, 15 April 2003

Thomas Krag

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

contents

Contents

  • Introduction to cycling in Denmark
  • National and international cycle policies
  • The bicycle policy of Copenhagen
  • Paradoxes and challenges
  • A concluding remark

Bicycle Policies in Denmark

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

people and bicycles

People and bicycles

  • 5.3 Million people
  • 4.5 Million bicycles
  • 1 Million people cycle every day

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

other figures on cycling in denmark

Other figures on cycling in Denmark

  • 15% of all trips travelled by bicycle
  • 3.5% of all kilometres travelled by bicycle
  • 3-400,000 bicycles sold per Year
  • 70,000 bicycles stolen per Year
  • 60 cyclists killed per Year

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

bicycle parking

Bicycle parking

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

cycle tracks

Cycle tracks

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

cycle lanes

Cycle lanes

Blue cycle lanes

Along roadside

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

national cycle routes

National cycle routes

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

trip purposes

Trip purposes

Bicycle

Other means

(Trips per person per day)

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

length of bicycle trips

Length of bicycle trips

(% of bicycle trips)

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

modes of transport in danish cities

Modes of transport in Danish cities

(Trips per person per day)

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – Introduction

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

danish strategy

Danish strategy

Targets

  • One third of short car trips (<= 3 km) transferred to walking and cycling
  • Less safety hazard

Bicycle Policies in Denmark

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

danish strategy13

Danish strategy

Activities

  • National campaign for walking and cycling
  • Advice to local governments
  • Research and development projects
  • Infrastructural projects promoting safe cycling

Bicycle Policies in Denmark

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

promoting active modes of transport

Promoting active modes of transport

”In particular, we will promote safe and environmentally friendly cycling and walking by…

  • Safe infrastructure and networks
  • Traffic management
  • Speed controls and speed limits
  • Taking into account the needs of pedestrians and cyclists.”

Charter of transport, environment and health, London 1999

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – International input

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

promoting active modes of transport15

Promoting active modes of transport

Promoting cycling and walking for physical activity

”To contribute towards the reduction of several common and serious diseases (notably cardiovascular diseases) and functional deterioration through substantial increases in regular physical exercise and through physically active modes of transport, notably walking and cycling.”

Charter of transport, environment and health, London 1999

Bicycle Policies in Denmark – International input

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

the bicycle policy of copenhagen

The bicycle policy of Copenhagen

1. Basic facts

2. History

3. Bicycle use today

4. Development of a bicycle policy

5. The Bicycle Account

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

basic figures on copenhagen

Basic figures on Copenhagen

Inhabitants

Copenhagen City 0.5 million

(Greater Copenhagen 1.8 million)

(Denmark 5.3 million)

Area 89.6 km2

(5,600/km2 )

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

history in short

History in short

Majority of cyclists in the 1950ies

Decrease in the 1960ies

Increase in cyclingsince late 1970ies

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

bicycle traffic development

Bicycle traffic development

Cyclists

per day

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

.

Inner city ring

City border

.

1970 1980 1990 2000 year

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

today s situation

Today’s situation

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

modal split

Modal split

All trips

bicycle

car

Transport to work

walk

bicycle

car

bus and train

walk

bus

and train

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

don t they have cars

Don’t they have cars?

Car ownership 223 per 1,000

(in Denmark 347 per 1,000)

(abroad >400 per 1,000)

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

developing a bicycle policy

Developing a bicycle policy

Bicycle network plan proposed 1974

Big manifestations from 1977 and onwards

Bicycle network plan agreed by the Municipality 1980

Environmental plan 1997: no increase in cartraffic

Network originally proposed almost achieved

More advanced plan agreed politically 2002

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

bicycle network plan

Bicycle network plan

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

5 bicycle policy goals for the city

5 bicycle policy goals for the City

Increase bicycle share home-work to 40%

Reduce risk of personal injuries by 50%

Achieve that 80% of all cyclists feel safe in traffic

Increase effective travelling speed by 10%

Increase comfort so that only 5% of the bicycle routes are judged uncomfortable

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

bicycle injuries

Bicycle injuries

.

Bicycle traffic

Seriously injured cyclists

.

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

9 focus areas

9 focus areas

Cycle tracks and cycle lanes

Green cycle routes

City centre development

Bicycles and public transport

Bicycle parking

Intersections

Cycle track maintenance

Cycle track day-to-day care

Campaigns

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

the bicycle account

The Bicycle Account

… a tool for the bicycle policy

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

bicycle account contents

Bicycle Account contents

Facts on a range of relevant issues

Users’ points of view

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

bicycle account facts

Bicycle Account, facts

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

bicycle account ratings

Bicycle Account, ratings

Users’ points of view, maximum score = 10

Copenhagen as a city for cyclists        

Cyclist security 

Amount of cycle tracks 

Feasability of combining PT 

Bicycle parking 

Cycle track maintenance 

City information on traffic planning 

Road maintenance 

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Copenhagen

Thomas Krag Mobility advice

paradoxes and challenges

Paradoxes and challenges

  • Typical historical development
  • Predominant bicycle traffic
  • Growth in cartraffic, decrease in cycling
  • Predominant cartraffic. Cycling?

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Challenges

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

paradoxes and challenges33

Paradoxes and challenges

Krag’s 1st law

Practically everybody with access to a car

will, if possible, use the car for any transport

unless flying is more appropriate.

(car is used for 44% of all 1-2 km trips in Denmark)

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Challenges

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

paradoxes and challenges34

Paradoxes and challenges

Factors influencing each mode of transport

Perception of

  • Speed
  • Price
  • Safety
  • Comfort, well-being
  • Status

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Challenges

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

paradoxes and challenges35

Paradoxes and challenges

Prevention of bicycle traffic by…

  • Reducing the competitiveness
  • Allowing increased traffic and speed of cars on common areas
  • Eliminating cycle tracks
  • Banning cycling

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Challenges

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

paradoxes and challenges36

Paradoxes and challenges

Political reasons to promote cycling

  • Cheap mobility
  • Fast on short and medium distances
  • Space saving
  • Non polluting
  • Healthy
  • Advantageous to the society

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Challenges

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

paradoxes and challenges37

Paradoxes and challenges

Reflections on advantages

Cheap

Short trips

Space saving

Pollution

Health

Society

Symbol of poverty, lack of interest

Not a general solution

Easily overseen

Undisputeable, but…

Important in ’fat’ societies

True, but often ignored

Bicycle Policies in Denmark - Challenges

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

a concluding remark

A concluding remark

Bicycle promotion is a complex matter

…but several successes are found in rich countries.

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

Bicycle Policies in Denmark

Thomas Krag Mobility Advice

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