Basic Fire Fighter

Basic Fire Fighter PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Basic Fire Fighter

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1. 1

2. 2 TERMINAL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE Given a mock fire situation the student will demonstrate proper ventilation procedures of various roof types according to NFPA 1001.

3. 3 ENABLING OBJECTIVES Describe the proper techniques and benefits used in ventilation. Describe the factors that affect ventilation. Describe how building construction features within a structure affect ventilation. Describe the tactical priorities that are needed in the ventilation process.

4. 4 ENABLING OBJECTIVES Determine the proper locations and extent of the smoke and fire conditions. Describe the different methods of ventilation when they are needed.

5. 5 ENABLING OBJECTIVES Describe the special safety considerations while proceeding ventilation. Describe the proper ventilation techniques when a back draft or flashover condition exists.

6. 6 Ventilation The process of removing smoke, heat, and toxic gases from a burning building and replacing them with cooler, cleaner, more oxygen-rich air.

7. 7 Benefits of Proper Ventilation Locate trapped occupants faster Fresh air to occupants overcome by smoke Advance hose lines more rapidly and safely Reduce backdraft and flashover Limits fire spread Reduces property loss

8. 8 Benefits of Proper Ventilation

9. 9 Factors Effecting Ventilation Convection currents Mechanical ventilation activities Negative-pressure Positive-pressure Hose streams

10. 10 Factors Effecting Ventilation Wind and atmospheric forces Wind speed and direction Temperature and humidity

11. 11 Fire-Resistive Construction Construction design Structural components noncombustible Compartmentalization Paths of fire spread Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Stairways Elevator shafts Plumbing and Pipe chases Void space in walls Roofs generally of steel or concrete

12. 12 Wood-Frame Construction Construction design Similar to ordinary but exterior walls are combustible Paths of fire spread Attics Wood truss roofs and floors Construction types Balloon-frame Platform

13. 13 Venting for Confinement Second highest priority is contain the fire and control the situation Prevents fire spread Makes fire attacks easier

14. 14 Venting for Property Conservation Limits amount of damaged areas Rapid removal limits amount of permanent damage. If a structure is ventilated rapidly and correctly, the damage caused by smoke, heat , water , and overhaul operations can be reduced.

15. 15 Location and Extent of Smoke and Fire Conditions Factors to consider Size of the fire Stage of combustion Location within the building Available ventilation options

16. 16 Location and Extent of Smoke and Fire Conditions Where to ventilate As close to the fire as possible Directly over the seat Through an open door or window that opens outside If unable to vent close to the fire Predict how location will affect the fire Anticipate fire spread and locate hose lines for protection

17. 17 Types of Ventilation Two basic types of ventilation Horizontal Utilizes horizontal openings in a structure such as doors and windows Vertical Involves openings in the roofs or floors

18. 18 Vertical Ventilation Safety Precaution

19. 19 “Sound” the roof Stay on Roof Ladder that has been deployed. Have a second means of egress - Example Second Extension Ladder Available. Make cuts from Upwind With clear exit path Stay on roof ladder until the furthest cut is to be made ONLY one foot can come off the ladder the other needs to be on a firm RAFFTER. Vertical Ventilation Safety Considerations

20. 20 Structural stability of the roof Leave the area once done Falling from the roof Two exit routes Not getting opening between yoand the exit Have a charged hose line Vertical Ventilation Safety Considerations

21. 21 Vertical Ventilation Note the existence of and avoid obstructions or excessive weight on the roof Extend ladder 3 to 5 rungs above the roof line Sound the roof for structural integrity before stepping on to it Provide two means of escape Use life lines, roof ladders or other means to prevent slipping or falling

22. 22 Vertical Ventilation Work in groups of two but no more than necessary Use caution around electrical wires Use tools with caution and beware of others Start power tools on the ground; and shut off before hoisting Avoid cutting main structural supports

23. 23 Vertical Ventilation Releases combustion products vertically Occurs naturally if there is an opening May be assisted by mechanical means Usually involves making openings in roof

24. 24 Vertical Ventilation Make opening close to seat of fire Determine hottest point

25. 25 Tools Used in Vertical Ventilation Power saws Axes Halligans Pry bars Tin cutters Pike poles Utility rope

26. 26 Horizontal Ventilation Commonly used in Residential fires Room-and-contents fires Fires that can quickly be controlled Generally fast and easy to use Can be used from inside or outside the building

27. 27 Horizontal Ventilation Most effective when opening is directly to outside More difficult when there are no openings Limits structural damage May utilize natural and mechanical methods

28. 28 Natural Ventilation Used when air currents are adequate Used when ventilation is needed quickly Open leeward window HIGH of building first, open windward side window LOW.

29. 29 Breaking Glass (VN – 1) General rules Try to open first. Wear full protective clothing and eye protection. Remove Screen from window. Ensure no one will be struck by the glass. Always use a tool. Keep hands above the point of impact. Use a tool to clear remaining glass.

30. 30 Opening Doors Provide large openings May compromise entry/exit points May be best for fresh air points Good location for mechanical ventilation devices

31. 31 Negative Pressure Ventilation Uses fans called ejectors to exhaust smoke and heat Limitations: Positioning Power source Maintenance Air flow control Advantages Explosion-proof motors

32. 32 Negative Pressure Ventilation (VN-5) Wears full protective equipment. Determines the area to be ventilated and the outside wind direction. If possible, places the smoke ejector to exhaust on the leeward side of the building. Hangs the fan as high as possible in the selected opening, using appropriate hardware.

33. 33 Negative Pressure Ventilation (VN-5) Removes any obstructions from the area used to ventilate smoke (including curtains, screens & other debris). Reduces churning by covering the area around the fan with salvage covers or plastic sheeting. Provides an opening on the windward side of the structure to provide cross ventilation.

34. 34 Positive Pressure Ventilation Uses large, powerful fans to force fresh air into a structure. Advantages: Quick and efficient Increased safety Disadvantages May spread the fire May increase carbon monoxide levels

35. 35 Positive Pressure Ventilation (VN-4) Wears full protective equipment. Determines the location of the fire within the building and the direction of attack. Ensures attack team is in place and ready to enter the building. Places the fan 4' to 10' in front of the opening to be used for attack.

36. 36 Positive Pressure Ventilation (VN-4) Provides an exhaust opening at or near the fire. (This opening can be made before starting the fan or when the fan is started.) Check for interior openings that could allow the products of combustion to be pushed into unwanted areas. Start the fan and check that the cone of air produced completely covers the opening. Allow smoke to clear (usually 30 seconds to a minute, depending on the size of the area to be ventilated and the smoke conditions).

37. 37 Hydraulic Ventilation Uses a fog or broken pattern stream to create a pressure differential Advantages Can move several thousand cubic feet of air per minute Does not require specialized equipment Disadvantages Water damage Safety hazards

38. 38 Hydraulic Ventilation (VN-6) Wears full protective equipment. Enters the room and remains close to the ventilation opening. Stays low, out of the heat and smoke (or to one side to keep from partially obstructing the opening). Opens the nozzle to a narrow to medium fog pattern. Directs the fire stream through the window, holding the nozzle 2' to 4' back from the window opening and covering no more than 85% to 90% of the opening with the stream.

39. 39 Basic Indicators of Roof Collapse Spongy feeling Visible sagging Roof separating from the walls Structural failure in another portion of building Sudden increase in fire intensity

40. 40 Solid Beam vs. Truss May not be able to tell by looking Solid beam Girders, beams, and rafters Truss Lightweight components, often 2" x 4" wood with gussets or staples Steel bars welded together Triangular configuration

41. 41 Roof Designs Flat roofs Can be constructed with many types of supports, decking, and materials Pitched roofs Have a visible slope for rain, ice, and snow runoff

42. 42 Roof Designs Arched roofs Generally found in commercial structures to create a large span without columns

43. 43 Pitched Roof Ventilation (VN – 2) Determine where to ventilate Ladder 5 rungs above the roofline Deploy roof ladder Sound roof for structural integrity Locate roof supports Make the opening at least 4’ X 4’ Remove roof materials Cut decking alongside joist Pry up boards Open ceiling below with blunt of pike pole

44. 44 Types of Roof Cuts Peak cut Rectangular cut Louver Roof Cut Trench cut

45. 45 Peak Roof Cut Used for peaked roofs with plywood sheeting A tool is used to reveal the roof covering along the peak. A power saw or axe is used to make a series of vertical cuts between the supports.

46. 46 Rectangular or Square Roof Cut Requires four cuts completely through the decking Use care to not cut structural supports. Stand upwind and have a safe exit. Can use a triangle cut to help pry up If several layers exist, may have to peel a layer at a time

47. 47 Trench Roof Cut Used as a defensive tactic to stop the progress of a large fire in a narrow building Creates a large opening ahead of the fire “Writes off” part of the building Requires both time and manpower, bring in fresh crews to do overhaul Also referred as STRIP CUT

48. 48 Louver Roof Cut Used for flat or sloping roofs with plywood decking Power saw or axe used to make the cuts Can quickly create a large opening

49. 49 Flat Roof Ventilation With Saw ( VN-3 ) Wears full protective equipment. Select the proper place to ventilate. Ensures presence of a charged hoseline for protection. Sounds the roof for structural integrity before stepping onto it. Locates roof supports by sounding with an axe or other appropriate tool.

50. 50 Flat Roof Ventilation With Saw ( VN-3 ) Marks the location for the opening by scratching a line on the roof surface with the pick end of the axe. Positions himself/herself on the upwind side of the planned ventilation opening. After his/her partner completes the cut with the saw, prys up the sheathing material with the pick end of the axe. Pushes the blunt end of a pike pole, or some other suitable tool, through the roof opening to open the ceiling below.

51. 51 Flat Roof Ventilation With Axe ( VN-3 ) Wears full protective equipment. Select the proper place to ventilate. Ensures presence of a charged hoseline for protection. Sounds the roof for structural integrity before stepping onto it.

52. 52 Flat Roof Ventilation With Axe ( VN-3 ) Wears full protective equipment. Select the proper place to ventilate. Ensures presence of a charged hoseline for protection. Sounds the roof for structural integrity before stepping onto it. Locates roof supports by sounding with an axe or other Marks the location for the opening by scratching a line on the roof surface with the pick end of the axe.

53. 53 Ventilating a Metal Roof Discoloration and warping may indicate seat of fire. As fire heats the metal deck, tar roof covering can melt and leak into the building. Metal can roll down and create a dangerous slide directly into the opening.

54. 54 High-Rise Buildings Many have hard to break sealed windows. They create unique smoke patterns with the stack effect. Newer buildings have smoke management in the HVAC. Designate one stairwell as a rescue route. Positive-pressure fans can keep smoke out of the stairs.

55. 55 Stack Effect Smoke Patterns

56. 56 Windowless Buildings Traps heat and smoke with no secondary exit Treat similar to a basement fire. Ventilate high and use mechanical assistance. May need to use existing roof openings, cut new ones reopen boarded windows/doors or make new openings

57. 57 Venting a Basement Basement fires are especially difficult to ventilate. If a basement fire occurs, windows or exterior doorways into the basement should be opened or broken to provide as much ventilation as possible. A combination of vertical and horizontal ventilation can sometimes be used in attacking a basement fire.

58. 58 Smoke and hot gases moving up the stairway as the fire fighters descend can make entry difficult or impossible. The preferred method of attacking a basement fire is to make as many ventilation openings on one side of the basement as possible allowing fire fighters to enter from the opposite side, along with fresh air. Venting a Basement

59. 59 Fire fighters may need to cut holes in the first floor, by open windows, to allow the smoke and heat to rise out of the basement and vent out the window Venting a Basement

60. 60 Large Buildings More difficult than small ones Smoke cools as it travels, causing stratification (smoke forms in layers). When possible, use interior walls and doors to create smaller areas.

61. 61 Backdraft Conditions Ventilation is a major consideration in two significant fire ground phenomena: backdraft and flashover. Both can be deadly situations and fire fighters should exercise great caution when conditions indicate that either is possible.

62. 62 Backdraft can occur when a building is charged with hot gases and most of the available oxygen has been consumed To help reduce the danger, fire fighters must release the heat and unburned products of combustion if possible without allowing fresh air to enter Backdraft Conditions

63. 63 A ventilation opening as high as possible within the building or area can help to eliminate potential backdraft conditions. Once fire fighters see flaming combustion inside the structure, they may open their hose streams to cool the interior atmosphere as quickly as possible Backdraft Conditions

64. 64 Flashover Both ventilation and cooling are needed to relieve potential flashover conditions. Flashover can occur when the air in the room is very hot, and all combustibles in the space are near their ignition point.

65. 65 Applying water cools the atmosphere, while ventilation draws heat and flames away from the hose crew. Flashover

66. 66 TERMINAL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE Given a mock fire situation the student will demonstrate proper ventilation procedures of various roof types according to NFPA 1001.

67. 67 ENABLING OBJECTIVES Describe the proper techniques and benefits used in ventilation. Describe the factors that affect ventilation. Describe how building construction features within a structure affect ventilation. Describe the tactical priorities that are needed in the ventilation process.

68. 68 ENABLING OBJECTIVES Determine the proper locations and extent of the smoke and fire conditions. Describe the different methods of ventilation when they are needed.

69. 69 ENABLING OBJECTIVES Describe the special safety considerations while proceeding ventilation. Describe the proper ventilation techniques when a back draft or flashover condition exists.

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