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WARFARE . . . . . . an Anthropological Perspective. WARFARE A constant cannot explain a variable. Proximate vs. Ultimate cause Positive vs. Negative feedback systems Resource Competition * * * * * Infrastructure  Structure  Superstructure

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slide1

WARFARE . . .

. . . an Anthropological Perspective

slide2

WARFARE

A constant cannot explain a variable.

Proximate vs. Ultimate cause

Positive vs. Negative feedback systems

Resource Competition

* * * * *

InfrastructureStructureSuperstructure

ResourceConflictMale Supremacy

Competition Warfare Complex

and

Alliances

slide4

Warfare

          • Conflict
  • Competition
  • Population / Resources
slide7

Chimpanzee Warfare

  • In 1968, Jane Goodall stopped feeding bananas to the Chimps at Gombe.
  • 2. Chimps gradually split into two separate groups:
    • the larger Kasakela Community to the north.
    • the slightly smaller group of about a dozen chimps that moved south to the Kahama Valley.
  • By 1972, the Kahana group had become a completely separate community.
  • 4. At about the same time, parties of Kasakela males began making repeated forays south.
slide8

Chimpanzee Warfare (cont.):

    • 5. Early in 1974, a gang of 5 Kasakela chimps from the northern group killed a single male from the southern group.
      • --He was never seen again.
    • 6. One month later, 3 Kasakela males caught one of the prime Kahana males and severely beat him.
  • --He was never seen again.
    • 7. Later that year, 5 Kasakela males attacked Goliath (a Kahana male) and severely beat him.
  • --He was never found again.
slide9

Chimpanzee Warfare(cont.):

    • 8. In 1975, 4 Kasakela males caught an old female, named MadamBee and beat her until she was inert.
        • She died 5 days after the attack.
        • Her daughter, Honey Bee, cared for her until she died.
    • 9. Early in 1977, several males from the northern Kasakela group attacked and killed Charlie, a southern Kahanna male.
    • 10. Late in 1977, 5 Kasakelamales from the north pounced on Sniff, the soleremaining Kahanna male, and left him with a broken leg and bleeding from countless wounds.
slide10

Significant Features of Chimpanzee Warfare:

1.Gradual exterminationof one community by

another.

2. Raids occurred over a period of6 years.

3.Northern males werenotsimplydefending

territory.

--most attacks weredeep into the southern

territory.

4. The entire Kasakela group nowtravels, feeds and

sleepsfreely throughout the southern area.

slide11

Ecological Context of Chimpanzee Warfare:

1. Cannibalism:

a. Passion and Pom (ate5 of the 6 babies born in one year and

may have eaten as many as 10 babiesover a 4-year period).

b. Bodies of at least 3 malesnever found.

2. Hunting:

a. Chimps are omnivorous and feedindividually.

b. Cooperation occurs onlyduringhunting.

--mostly baboons and small antelope.

c. Food sharing occurs only with meat

d. 30 chimps at Gombe made about 40 kills per year.

--about one kill every 9 days.

slide12

Ecological Context of Chimpanzee Warfare (cont.):

  • 3. Tool Use:
  • a. termite sticks
          • nutritional value of insects
          • made for future use
  • b. sponges
  • c. toilet paper
  • d. nests
slide14

Ecological Context of Chimpanzee Warfare (cont.):

4. Comparison of Gombe Chimps with Budongo Chimps.

a. Tool use found only at Gombe.

b. Hunting and food sharing found only at Gombe.

c. Cannibalism found only at Gombe.

d. Warfare found only at Gombe.

5. Population Pressure

a. 20 square miles needed to support 1 chimp at Gombe

b. Budongo rain forest supports 17 chimps in 1 square mile.

c. Budongo forest can support about 300 times as many

chimps per square mile as Gombe.

slide15

“Well, well --another blonde hair. . . . Conducting more ‘research’ with that Jane Goodall Tramp?”

slide16

Tribe

Clans

Maximal Lineages

Minimal Lineages

Segmentary Lineage Organization

slide18

Segmentary Lineage and Political Expansion

* * *

Systems expand, not necessarily people

slide19

Ethiopia

And

Somalia

Somali Expansion in the Horn of Africa

slide21

YANOMAMO WARFARE

A constant cannot explain a variable.

Proximate vs. Ultimate cause

Positive vs. Negative feedback systems

Resource Competition

Protein Scarcity vs. Protein Deficiancy

* * * * *

InfrastructureStructureSuperstructure

ResourceConflictWeiteri Complex

Competition Warfare

and

Alliances

slide22

Chagnon vs. Harris

Causes of Yanomamo Warfare

Chagnon: --Fighting over Women

--”We like meat, but we like women better.”

Harris: --Protein Scarcity

--Mechanism of Population Control

--Male Supremacy Complex

--female infanticide

slide23

Chagnon vs. Harris

Problems with Their Explanations

Chagnon: --Female shortage created by Yanomamo themselves.

--Only raid villages for women with which raiding already

exists. (Warfare, therefore, not explained.)

--proximate explanation

-- emic explanation

Harris: --Protein Scarcity vs. Protein Deficiency (Big Mac)

--Yanomamo Shamatari population increase

-- from 200 to 2,000 people, 1900 – 1970

-- 1,000% increase over 70 years = 14% increase

per year

slide24

Evidence of Protein Scarcity

1. Five-day hunting expeditions with no success.

2. Primary game animal: Monkeys and other solitary animals

3. Lower protein consumption

a. less than other Amazonian Indians.

b. Less than the Dobe Ju/’hoansi

4. Reliance on insects for food. (cost/benefit)

5. Evidence of recent adaptation

a. Boil bananas only

b. Fish only with poison

c. Poorly constructed canoes

slide25

Amazonian Indians

Protein Consumption

slide27

Alliance SpiralWarfare Spiral

Nomohoni

GenearalizedReciprocal

ReciprocityWoman ExchangeRaid

The Feast

Spear Fights

Balanced Mutual Feasting

Reciprocity Ax Fights

Club Fights

Side-Slapping Duels

Negative Sporadic and Chest-Pounding Duels

Reciprocity Reciprocal

Trading

Yanomamo Politics: Alliance vs. Warfare

slide28

House Temperature Decreases

Furnace Restores House Temperature

Negative Feedback System

slide29

Neutron Bomb

  • Positive Feedback System
          • M.I.R.V.
  • I.C.B.M.
  • Hydrogen Bomb
  • Atomic Bomb
slide31

Population Pressure

Central VillagesPeripheral Villages

Larger VillagesSmaller Villages

40 – 25025 - 100

Villages CloserVillages Dispersed

higher density lower density

Warfare ConstantRaiding less Frequent

Patanowa-teri raided some villages not involved

25 times in one year in raids for over 5 years

Alliance SystemAlliance System

elaborateabsent

slide32

Population Pressure

(cont.)

Central VillagesPeripheral Villages

HeadmanHeadman

greater authority little authority

during warfare

CultivationCultivation

more important lessimportant

FightingFighting

more elaborate less elaborate

Weiteri ComplexWeiteri Complex

more pronounced less pronounced

slide33

Population Pressure

(cont.)

Central VillagesPeripheral Villages

Female InfanticideFemale Infanticide

greaterless

M/FM/F

0-14: 157 / 100 0-14: 121 / 100

all ages: 130 / 100 all ages: 115 / 100

PolyandryPolyandry

absent practiced

sexual liaisons is polyandry and sexual

primary source of liaisons institutionalized

conflict in village

slide37

Explanation:

1. Plains Indian subsistence behavior, social

organization and warfare evolved as

predictable outcomes of changes in

demography, population-resource relations

andlabor requirements, as well as increasing

resource competition.

2. The evolution of Plains Indian ecology and

warfare constituted apositive-feedback

systemresulting from the infusion ofnew

subsistence technologiesand anew

productive relationshipbetween Indians

and resources.

slide38

Impact of the Horse and Gun on Bison Hunting:

1. Changed thespatial relationshipbetween

Indians and bison

2. Increasedsize of hunting territory

3. Increased thespeedandeffectivenessof

the buffalo hunt

4. Increasedreliabilityof hunting

5. Reducedper capita labor costs(cost/benefit)

6. Individualizedbison hunting

7. Industrializedthe hunt

slide39

Impact of the Hide Trade on Bison Hunting:

  • 1. ChangedPopulation/Resource (P/R)relationship
  • between Indians and bison
  • 2. Shift fromsubsistencetocommercialeconomy
  • 3. Individual male Indians becameself-employed
  • entrepreneurs
  • 4. Producers on the margins of an expandingglobal
  • economy
slide40

Infrastructural Changes:

1. Increasedimmigration onto the Plains

2. Dramatic increase in the size of the Plains

Indian Population

3. Precipitous decline in the size of the bison

population.

Population/Resources

slide41

Indian

Immigration onto the Plains

slide42

Decline in Bison Population

Bison

YearPopulation

1800 40,000,000

1850 20,000,000

1865 15,000,000

-------

1870 14,000,000

1880 395,000

1889 1,091

slide43

Early Reports of Indian Food Shortages:

1850: Comanche reported eating their horses and

raiding New Mexico settlements for food.

1853: Cheyenne and Arapaho reported spending

half the year in a state of starvation.

slide44

Increasing hunting pressure on bison led to a greater “massing” of bison herds and to increased local variation in bison availability.

* * * * *

This resulted in reduced access to bison for some Plains Indian groups.

slide46

Causes of Decline in Bison Numbers:

1. Overhunting

2. Grazing competition

3. Diseases

4. Predation

5. Climate

slide47

Structural Changes:

1. Evolution ofindependentfamily

2. Increase inpolygyny

3.Bridepriceinflation

4. Emergingclass differentiation

5. Increasingwarfare

6. Evolution of political-militaryalliances

7. Increasing importance ofmilitary societies

slide48

"There were many brave and successful warriors of the Cheyenne who never went on …(scalping expeditions)…, who on their war journeys tried to a void coming in close contact with enemies. Such men went to war for the sole purpose of increasing their possessions by capturing horses: that is, they carried on war as a business--for profit. Some of these men who possessed high reputation for courage, success, and general well-doing-- made it their boast that they never killed a man, and perhaps never counted coup.

--George Grinnell

slide49

Increase in Polygyny:

"A Plains Indian with only one wife would always be poor, but it is a fine sight to see one of those big men among the Blackfeet, who has two or three lodges, five or six wives, twenty or thirty children, and fifty to a hundred head of horses; for his trade amounts to upward of $2,000 a year, and I assure you such a man has a great deal of dignity about him."

--Charles Larpenteur

slide50

Emerging Class Differentiation:

"In contrast to an ondei son, …(a lower rank son)… has had to think first of economic returns and secondarily of brave deeds, of coup counts. ... Given a situation in which an enemy has fallen from (his) horse, the young …(lower rank)… warrior is torn between counting coup and riding after the enemy\'s horse. The rich man\'s decision is much simpler; he counts coup."

--Mishkin (1940)

slide51

Enculturation of Martial Values:

"A man could not even court a girl unless he had proved his courage. That is one reason why so many were so anxious to win good war records. They were all afraid of what people, and especially the women, would say if they were cowardly. The women even had a song they would sing about a man whose courage had failed him. \'If you are afraid when you charge, turn back. The desert women will eat you.\' It was hard to go into a fight, and they were often afraid, but it was worse to turn back and face the women."

--John Stands-in-Timber

slide52

Plains Indians generally believed that buffalo were supernatural in origin and existed in limitless numbers underground. A Bison Calling Ceremony was performed each year to coax them from their underground shelters.

slide53

“In 1881, representatives of many tribes assembled on the North Fork of the Red River for the Kiowa Sun Dance where a Kiowa shaman named Buffalo Coming Out vowed to call on the herds to re-emerge from the ground. The Kiowa believed the bison had gone into hiding in the earth, and they still call a peak in the Wichita Mountains "Hiding Mountain."

slide54

Plains Indian

Alliances:

Blackfoot

Assiniboine- Cree

Mandan-Hidatsa

Sioux

Sioux

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