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Harmonized Research on ITS. UNECE ITC: ITS Roundtable Geneva Feb 18, 2004. Y. Ian Noy , Ph.D., P.Eng., CPE Director, Standards Research and Development Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate Transport Canada. Transport Canada. Outline. The safety risks of in-vehicle ITS

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harmonized research on its

Harmonized Research on ITS

UNECE ITC: ITS RoundtableGeneva

Feb 18, 2004

Y. Ian Noy, Ph.D., P.Eng., CPE

Director, Standards Research and Development

Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate

Transport Canada


  • The safety risks of in-vehicle ITS
  • Governments’ role and challenges
  • International Harmonized Research Agenda
  • IHRA and WP.29 liaison
of all transportation related fatalities 94 are on the road
Of all transportation-related fatalities, 94% are on the road





WHO estimates 1,171,000 deaths annually costing $2,342,000,000,000

intelligent transport systems

Positioning & tracking

Transportation objectives

Digital maps

  • Reduce congestion
  • Improve safety
  • Increase efficiency
  • Improve comfort
  • Improve transit services
  • Reduce fuel consumption
  • Reduce emissions



Image processors

Information databases

Traffic management

Traffic monitoring

Smart cards

Automated aids

Intelligent Transport Systems
intelligent automobiles
Intelligent Automobiles
  • In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) - compete with driving task:
    • telecommunications and infotainment systems (e.g., e-mail, Internet access), navigation systems
  • Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)- support driving task:
    • collision warning systems, adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning, lane change aids, and parking aids.
its safety or is it


Driving Task




ITS Safety, or IS IT?
  • ITS technology is safety neutral - Its implementation is safety critical
  • Safety impact depends largely on the extent to which the system supports users’ needs, and is compatible with human capabilities and limitations
government s role
Government’s Role
  • Encourage technologies that are likely to have safety benefits
  • Discourage technologies that are likely to have an adverse effect on safety
direct safety risks ivis
Direct Safety Risks - IVIS
  • Driver distraction
  • Driver overload
  • Driver confusion
human causes of crashes nhtsa 1995




Vision 5%



Speed 6%



Surface 6%



gap/velocity 10%


Human Causes of Crashes (NHTSA, 1995)

Errors of Situation Awareness43%

driver distractions

I was distracted for a moment. Go on

Driver Distractions
  • Visual (eyes off road)
  • Manual (hands off wheel)
  • Cognitive (mind off driving)
  • Auditory (sounds)
sources of distraction
Sources of Distraction
  • Wireless communication (cell phones)
  • Navigation system destination entry
  • Map and other complex visual displays
  • In-vehicle office tasks (e-mail, PDA, Internet)
  • Infotainment (location-based services, DVD)
  • Warnings from driver assistance systems
  • Multifunction displays and controls
levels of driver assistance
Levels of Driver Assistance
  • Information
  • Warning
  • Active controls (e.g., gas pedal)
  • Partial control of vehicle functions (steering, stop&go)
  • Complete control of vehicle (AHS)
direct safety risks adas
Direct Safety Risks - ADAS
  • Driver distraction
  • Driver overload
  • Driver confusion
  • False or nuisance alarms
  • Command effect
rationalizing automation
Rationalizing Automation
  • Each level has unique safety issues
  • Each level must coexist with other levels
  • Progression from one level to next is not incremental– it represents a radical change to the driving task
indirect safety risks
Indirect Safety Risks
  • Behavioural adaptation
  • Increased exposure
  • Loss of skill & negative transfer
  • Violation of expectation (by non-users)
  • Collision migration (MV to SV, to other users, etc.)
its safety research programs
ITS Safety Research Programs
  • Europe
    • EC FP5: HASTE
    • EC FP6: eSafety, AIDE, PReVENT, HUMANIST
    • France, UK, Germany (ADAM), Netherlands
  • North America
  • Japan
    • ASV
  • Australia
key challenges for government
Key Challenges for Government
  • Traditional policy paradigms not suitable:
    • Design cycle shorter than policy cycle
    • Technology is diversifying rapidly
    • Behavioural science lags technology
  • Integration by consumer, not industry
  • Jurisdictional boundaries no longer valid
need for new paradigm
Need for New Paradigm
  • Driver-system integration must be an integral part of motor transport system development.This has implications for:
    • System design
    • Regulatory policy
enhanced safety of vehicles esv international harmonized research activities
the Netherlands







Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV):International Harmonized Research Activities
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • France
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Italy
  • Japan
esv ihra working groups
ESV: IHRA Working Groups
  • Active safety
    • Intelligent Transport Systems
  • Passive safety
    • Advanced Offset Frontal Crash Protection
    • Pedestrian Safety
    • Biomechanics
    • Vehicle Compatibility
    • Side Impact
ihra its objectives
IHRA-ITS : Objectives
  • to coordinate international policy-oriented research to minimize the potential adverse consequences of on-board ITS technologies.
  • to develop procedures for the evaluation of safety of in-vehicle information, control and communication systems.
  • to provide an international view of the state of research into understanding the safety impact of driver workload and distraction.
aspects of system safety
Aspects of System Safety
  • System Reliability
    • Reliability of hardware and software, the propensity for malfunction and the potential to go into a dangerous and/or unanticipated safety mode.
  • Human Machine Interaction (HMI)
    • Key issues are function allocation, the design of interface, definition of dialogue between the user and the system.
  • Overall Traffic System
    • The aggregate effect on the traffic system as a whole.
summary of activities
Summary of Activities
  • Conceptual Framework
  • Workshops
  • Survey of current research
  • Priority Projects
ihra its priority projects
IHRA ITS Priority Projects
  • Development of a harmonized safety evaluation methodology framework
  • Driver understanding and expectation of ITS systems
  • Human factors principles checklist
  • Normative data on naturalistic driving behavior
  • Simulator reference test scenarios
  • Improved secondary task methodology for evaluating safety effects of driver workload
  • Harmonization and validation of surrogate safety measures
importance of its safety research
Importance of ITS Safety Research
  • Elaborates the role of governments with respect to ITS safety
  • ITS safety is currently unregulated; therefore, there is a reasonable prospect for harmonized policies based on shared scientific understanding of the issues
ihra wp 29 liaison
IHRA-WP.29 Liaison
  • IHRA research focus
    • Summarize state of knowledge
    • Coordinate joint research
    • Develop test procedures
  • WP.29 regulatory focus
    • Identify regulatory needs and priorities.
  • IHRA could coordinate the regulatory development research needed to support WP.29 work program