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Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction. Prepared by Maureen Fordham Disaster and Development Centre Northumbria University [email protected] Note to Users:

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Gender Mainstreaming

in Disaster Risk Reduction

Prepared by

Maureen Fordham

Disaster and Development Centre

Northumbria University

[email protected]

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction


Note to Users:

These training materials have been initially developed for the UNDP Training of Trainers in Sri Lanka from from 3-7 December 2007. Please modify these slides according to your needs and ensure that proper citation is included.

For more training materials on gender mainstreaming in DRR, please visit:

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

development and relief
Development and relief
  • “Human development, if not engendered, is endangered.”
  • UNDP Human Development Report (1995):

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction


Pressure and Release (PAR) model

National & International Political Economy

Power relations


Conflicts & War

Environmental Trends

Debt Crises



Structures & Power Systems




Other power relationships

Vulnerability component

Livelihood & its resilience

Base-line status



Social Protection







Volcanic eruption












Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction



Social protection

Self protection

Baseline status

All other households


Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

global risk trends disasters are not natural
Global Risk Trends - Disasters are NOT natural

Natural and human-induced hazards

Climate change and variables



Socio-economic: poverty,

unplanned urban growth, lack of awareness and institutional capacities...

Physical: insufficient land use planning, housing, infrastructures located in hazard prone areas...

Environmental degradation

ecosystem degradation; coastal, watershed, marshland


Anatomy of “natural” disasters


Natural hazard



Disaster Risk

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

hyogo framework for action 2005 2015 hfa
Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015(HFA)

Main Outcome of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction January 2005, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan

The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters – Recognized global guide to facilitate effective implementation of DRR at int’l, regional, national and local levelsnext 10 years

  • 3 Strategic goals
  • 5 Priorities for action
  • Implementation and follow-up

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

the hfa in brief
The HFA in Brief

Expected Outcome: The substantive reduction in losses in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries.

Political commitment of 168 Governmentsto implement HFA, allocate necessary resources and set up the appropriate institutional and legislative frameworks to facilitate its implementation

Political commitment to engage action and necessary reforms important – but DRR is everybody’s business

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

the hfa in brief1
The HFA in Brief
  • Strategic Goals to attain the expected outcome

a) A more effective integration of disaster risk into sustainable development policies, planning and programming at all levels with emphasis on prevention, mitigation, preparedness, and vulnerability reduction.

  • b) The development and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and capacities at all levels, including community level, to build resilience to hazards.
  • c) The systematic incorporation of risk reduction measures into the design and implementation of emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes in the reconstruction of affected communities.

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

priority 1

Priority 1

5 Priority Actions adopted at WCDR by member countries to guide the implementation of HFA and translate political commitment into action

Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation.

1.1 Foster political commitment to integrate DRR into national development planning

1.2 Evaluate existing legal and institutional mechanisms and policies and strengthen clear distribution of tasks and allocation of responsibilities.

1.3 Engage in dialogue with all relevant national actors in disaster risk management to set up a multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder national coordination mechanism for DRR.

1.4 Establish a national risk management vision, strategy and implementation plan, including benchmarks and allocate necessary resources.

1.5 Institutionalize DRR and establish mainstreaming mechanisms.

priority 2

Priority 2

Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning.

2.1 Elaboration of risk mapping and hazard monitoring system

2.2 Collect, review and synthesize existing knowledge, including sound practices and lessons learned; publish and disseminate.

2.3 Build the national knowledge base on risk and disaster risk management.

2.4 Establish a hazard monitoring program including effective, timely and reliable people-centered early warning and alert systems at the national and local levels.

2.5 Promote scientific and technological research and development, including space technology applications for DRR

2.6 Identify emerging risks (climate variability and regional threats like tsunamis)

priority 3

Priority 3

Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all level.

3.1 Develop a public awareness system, including world campaigns

3.2 Incorporate disaster risk and disaster risk reduction/management into school curricular and non formal education programs at all levels

3.3 Promote school safety programmes

3.4 Establish strategies to involve the media community in risk assessment and risk communication – educational and warning dissemination roles to play

3.5 Enhance access to information and understanding of risk and risk management and facilitate exchange of experiences amongst countries

3.6 Promote enhanced knowledge management and capacity-building through training exercises and fellowship programmes

priority 4

Priority 4

Reduce the underlying risk factors.

4.1 Establish DRR mechanisms related to land use planning and construction standards.

4.2 Establish mechanisms for protecting the poor and the more vulnerable. Promote the integration of DRR into PRSPs

4.3 Establish financial risk transfer mechanisms – enhance micro credit

4.4 Establish programs for vulnerability reduction of critical facilities and infrastructure (disaster resilient school and health-related infrastructures).

priority 5

Priority 5

Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

5.1 Assess disaster responseand recovery capability.

5.2 Develop evacuation plans, undertake drills .

5.3 Develop and test mechanisms for organizing and coordinating emergency operations.

5.4 Mainstream DRR into contingency planning

5.5 Dialogue, coordination and information exchange between disaster managers and development sectors

gender and the hfa
Gender and the HFA
  • “Gender is a core factor in disaster risk and in the implementation of disaster risk reduction. Gender is a central organizing principle in all societies, and therefore women and men are differently at risk from disasters. In all settings - at home, at work or in the neighbourhood - gender shapes the capacities and resources of individuals to minimize harm, adapt to hazards and respond to disasters. It is evident from past disasters that low-income women and those who are marginalized due to marital status, physical ability, age, social stigma or caste are especially disadvantaged. At the grass roots level, on the other hand, women are often well positioned to manage risk due to their roles as both users and managers of environmental resources, as economic providers, and as caregivers and community workers. For these reasons it is necessary to identify and use gender-differentiated information, to ensure that risk reduction strategies are correctly targeted at the most vulnerable groups and are effectively implemented through the roles of both women and men.” HFA Page 5

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

gender in the hfa
Gender in the HFA

The Guide to the implementation of the HFA states that:

  • Gender is a cross-cutting concern requiring attention throughout the planning, implementation and evaluation phases of the activities adopted to implement the Hyogo Framework for Action.

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

The need for sex-differentiated data is stressed as is the need to analyse the gender division of labour and power relationships between the sexes as these may impinge on the success or failure of all risk reduction strategies.

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

As gender is a central organising principle in all societies, the daily routines of women and men across and within societies put women and men, girls and boys, differently at risk.
  • It must be recognised, that gender also shapes the capacities and resources of women and men to minimise harm, adapt to hazards and respond to disasters when they must.

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

At the individual, household, neighbourhood and community level, women and men are differently affected by hazards and disasters and often involved in different ways in local or governmental initiatives to reduce the risk of disaster.

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

At the grassroots level, women’s organisation to manage risk is especially significant due to women’s roles as users and managers of environmental resources and economic providers as well as caregivers and community workers. Gender is also an important dimension of the workplace environments in which disaster risk reduction activities are undertaken.

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

general considerations
General considerations
  • A gender perspective should be integrated into all disaster risk management policies, plans and decision-making processes, including those related to risk assessment, early warning, information management, and education and training (as reaffirmed at the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly on the topic “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”).

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction

“What I have learned today is…”
  • “What I am still unsure about is…”

Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction