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### Chapter 25

Organic Review

Hydrocarbon Prefixes:

- IUPAC: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
- Hydrocarbon prefixes
- meth C
- eth C-C
- prop C-C-C
- but C-C-C-C
- Pent C-C-C-C-C
- hex C-C-C-C-C-C
- hept C-C-C-C-C-C-C
- oct C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
- non C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
- dec C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C

Memory device

mosquitos

eat

people’s

blood

meth = 1

eth = 2

prop = 3

but = 4

An isomer is when the same molecular formula has different structural formulas.

7. Draw the structural formula for propane.

H

H

H

propane

prop- = 3

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

8. Draw the structural formula for ethane.

H

H

ethane

eth- = 2

H

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

9. Draw the structural formula for octane.

octane

oct- = 8

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

H

H

C

H

11. Draw the structural formula for:

3-methyl-2-phenylhexane.

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

12. Draw the structural formula for: 1-butene.

1-butene

but- = 4

ene = double bond after 1st carbon

2

4

1

3

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

13. Draw the structural formula for: propyne.

propyne

prop- = 3

yne = triple bond after 1st carbon

2

1

3

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

14. Draw the structural formula for the two isomers of butane.

butane

but- = 4

isomer = different structural arrangement.

2-methylpropane

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

H

H

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

H

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

C

H

H

15. Draw two isomers of pentane.

Pentane

C5H12

C5H12

C5H12

2,2-dimethylpropane

2-methylbutane

The other isomers have branches.

This is the only straight chain structure.

methyl

6

3

5

4

2

7

methyl

1

Find the longest chain of carbons. (Parent chain)

The parent chain and the last word in the name.

Count so branched groups get the lowest numbering.

Identify substituents. (Branched groups)

3,3,5 -

trimethyl

heptane

The asymmetric carbon has different groups in each direction.

Trans isomers have groups attached to opposite sides of the double bond.

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