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GHSGT Review. Ecology. Organizational Levels. Species – group of the same organisms that are able to reproduce viable offspring that grow to maturity and reproduce viable offspring. Organizational Levels.

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GHSGT Review

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GHSGT Review

Ecology


Organizational Levels

  • Species – group of the same organisms that are able to reproduce viable offspring that grow to maturity and reproduce viable offspring


Organizational Levels

  • Population – group of individuals of the same species living at the same place at the same time


Organizational Levels

  • Community – groups of different populations living at the same place at the same time


Organizational Levels

  • Ecosystem – all the living and nonliving components of a particular area

  • Biotic – living

  • Abiotic - nonliving


Organizational Levels

  • Biosphere – where living things are found on Earth

  • 5 milesabove surface

    In atmosphere

  • 5 milesbelow surface in ocean

5 mi

5 mi


Organizational Levels

  • Species

  • Population

  • Community

  • Ecosystem

  • Biosphere


Nature: The Ultimate Recycler

  • 3 main cycles found in nature

    • H2OWATER

    • N2 NITROGEN

    • CCARBON


The Water Cycle

  • Surface water evaporates

  • Drops condense (clouds)

  • Precipitation falls (rain snow sleet hail)

  • Water replenishes ground water stores (aquifers), lakes streams rivers


The Nitrogen Cycle

  • Lightning fixes some, falls to ground

  • Most must be fixed to a usable form so plants can absorb it


The Nitrogen Cycle

  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria – fix atmospheric N2 into a form that plants can use

  • Legumefamily are the plants that can fix nitrogen

  • Ex: beans, clover


The Carbon Cycle

  • Animals breathe in oxygen and

    breathe out carbon dioxide

  • Plants take in carbon dioxide and

    release oxygen


Energy Flow in Ecosystems

  • Remember – energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It gets used (transformed)

  • Consumed energy must be replaced

  • All living things require energy


Electromagnetic Waves

Ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth is the SUN


Photosynthesis

  • Green plants are photosynthetic

  • Organelles called chloroplasts contain pigment chlorophyll (green)


Photosynthesis

  • CO2 + H20 → C6H12O6 + O2

    Carbon dioxide and Water

    in the presence of sunlight yield

    Sugar and Oxygen


Autotroph v. Heterotroph

  • Autotrophs can automatically make their own food from sunlight

  • Heterotrophs must obtain energy a different way


Producers

  • Can produce their own energy from sunlight

  • They are GREEN

  • How energy enters the ecosystem


Consumers

Must consume (eat) other organisms to obtain energy


HerbivoresOnly eat Producers


Carnivoresonly eat other Consumers


Omnivores

  • Eat both consumers and producers (meat and plants)


Detrivores

  • Break down organic molecules

  • Recycle dead plant and animal remains & return it to the food chain

  • Ex: earthworms

    Dung beetles


Decomposers

  • Break down dead organisms causing them to rot


Food Chain

  • Shows flow of energy as it gets passed from one trophic level to the next

Producer1st Order

2nd Order 3rd Order Consumers

OR

Producer Primary

Secondary Tertiary Consumers


Food Chain Example


Food Web

  • Shows interdependent organisms within an ecosystem

  • What-eats-what


TrophicLevel

A step in the transfer of energy within an ecosystem


Trophic Levels – Energy Pyramid

Tertiary Consumer

3rd Order Consumer

2nd Order Consumer

Secondary Consumer

1st Order Consumer

Primary Consumer

Producer


Energy Pyramid Questions

  • 90% of the energy consumed gets used at each trophic level

  • Only 10% of the energy gets passed on to the next trophic level

  • Energy at each trophic level is used

    in the normal course of living

    (metabolic processes)

  • The excess energy not used gets released as heat


Theory of Evolution

  • Species change over timein response to their environment

  • Those individuals that are able to adapt to their environment will survive and pass their genes on to the next generation


Natural Selection

  • Term used to describe the unequal survival and reproduction of organisms that results from the presence or absence of particular inherited traits


Natural Selection

  • Example: the peppered moth changed from a white moth with black spots


Natural Selection

  • Example: the peppered moth changed from a white moth with black spots


Natural Selection

  • To a black moth with white spots


Natural Selection

  • To a black moth with white spots


Natural SelectionThe Peppered Moth

White moth with black spots

Black moth with white spots


Natural SelectionThe Peppered Moth

White moth with black spots

Black moth with white spots


Charles Darwin

  • Saw birds called finches on the islands

  • They had adapted to their environment

  • Had different kinds of beaks and feet

  • They changed over time in response to the food that was on their island


Adaptation through Nat’l Selection

  • Galapagos giant tortoises

  • Also iguanas (lizards)


Natural Selection

Sometimes called

“Survival of the Fittest”


Relationship between two organisms

Means “living together”

Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualism

Competition

Predation

Commensalism

Parasitism

Symbiosis


Predation

  • One eats

  • One is eaten

  • Predator – eats

  • Prey – gets eaten

    Think -(they BETTER pray)

Example: fox and squirrel


Mutualism

  • Both organisms benefit

  • Is MUTUALLYBENEFICIAL

  • Ex: leaf cutter ants & acacia tree


Parasitism

  • One benefits

  • One is harmed or weakened

  • Parasite – benefits

  • Host – is used as source of nutrients

  • Ex: ticks on dog

    tapeworm

    mistletoe


Commensalism

  • One benefits

  • One is neither harmed nor helped

  • They CO-operate with each other

  • ex: shark & remora FISH


Competition

  • Both are competing for the same resource

  • Could be food, habitat, water, nutrients, sunlight

  • ex: panda & humans (bamboo), fire ants,

    Kudzu, plants


Primary Succession

  • Occurs in places where there were no living things before

  • Example: on rock after a volcano erupts


Primary Succession

  • The first plants to inhabit the area are called the pioneer species

  • Lichens can live on bare rock and help create soil for other plants to live


Primary Succession

  • Over time annual plants and grasses begin to grow


Primary Succession

  • Birds, rabbits, and insects come to eat the plants and help spread seeds from other areas

  • Shrubs begin to replace the grasses


Primary Succession

  • Squirrels and deer help spread seeds from pine trees that become the dominant species


Primary Succession

  • Over time they are replaced by hardwood trees like oak and maple

  • A mature forest is called a climax community


Secondary Succession

  • Natural disturbances like fire can destroy the ecosystem.

  • Although the forest is gone the soil remains


Secondary Succession

  • Occurs when seeds & roots begin to grow grasses and annual plants, then shrubs, then pine trees and then finally hardwood trees and a climax community forms again


Succession

  • Is the change in dominant species over time


Succession in a Pond

2

1

3

4


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