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GHSGT Review. Ecology. Organizational Levels. Species – group of the same organisms that are able to reproduce viable offspring that grow to maturity and reproduce viable offspring. Organizational Levels.

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GHSGT Review

Ecology


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Organizational Levels

  • Species – group of the same organisms that are able to reproduce viable offspring that grow to maturity and reproduce viable offspring


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Organizational Levels

  • Population – group of individuals of the same species living at the same place at the same time


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Organizational Levels

  • Community – groups of different populations living at the same place at the same time


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Organizational Levels

  • Ecosystem – all the living and nonliving components of a particular area

  • Biotic – living

  • Abiotic - nonliving


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Organizational Levels

  • Biosphere – where living things are found on Earth

  • 5 milesabove surface

    In atmosphere

  • 5 milesbelow surface in ocean

5 mi

5 mi


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Organizational Levels

  • Species

  • Population

  • Community

  • Ecosystem

  • Biosphere


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Nature: The Ultimate Recycler

  • 3 main cycles found in nature

    • H2OWATER

    • N2 NITROGEN

    • C CARBON


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The Water Cycle

  • Surface water evaporates

  • Drops condense (clouds)

  • Precipitation falls (rain snow sleet hail)

  • Water replenishes ground water stores (aquifers), lakes streams rivers


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The Nitrogen Cycle

  • Lightning fixes some, falls to ground

  • Most must be fixed to a usable form so plants can absorb it


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The Nitrogen Cycle

  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria – fix atmospheric N2 into a form that plants can use

  • Legumefamily are the plants that can fix nitrogen

  • Ex: beans, clover


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The Carbon Cycle

  • Animals breathe in oxygen and

    breathe out carbon dioxide

  • Plants take in carbon dioxide and

    release oxygen


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Energy Flow in Ecosystems

  • Remember – energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It gets used (transformed)

  • Consumed energy must be replaced

  • All living things require energy


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Electromagnetic Waves

Ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth is the SUN


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Photosynthesis

  • Green plants are photosynthetic

  • Organelles called chloroplasts contain pigment chlorophyll (green)


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Photosynthesis

  • CO2 + H20 → C6H12O6 + O2

    Carbon dioxide and Water

    in the presence of sunlight yield

    Sugar and Oxygen


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Autotroph v. Heterotroph

  • Autotrophs can automatically make their own food from sunlight

  • Heterotrophs must obtain energy a different way


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Producers

  • Can produce their own energy from sunlight

  • They are GREEN

  • How energy enters the ecosystem


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Consumers

Must consume (eat) other organisms to obtain energy


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HerbivoresOnly eat Producers


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Carnivoresonly eat other Consumers


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Omnivores

  • Eat both consumers and producers (meat and plants)


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Detrivores

  • Break down organic molecules

  • Recycle dead plant and animal remains & return it to the food chain

  • Ex: earthworms

    Dung beetles


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Decomposers

  • Break down dead organisms causing them to rot


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Food Chain

  • Shows flow of energy as it gets passed from one trophic level to the next

Producer1st Order

2nd Order 3rd Order Consumers

OR

Producer Primary

Secondary Tertiary Consumers



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Food Web

  • Shows interdependent organisms within an ecosystem

  • What-eats-what


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TrophicLevel

A step in the transfer of energy within an ecosystem


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Trophic Levels – Energy Pyramid

Tertiary Consumer

3rd Order Consumer

2nd Order Consumer

Secondary Consumer

1st Order Consumer

Primary Consumer

Producer


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Energy Pyramid Questions

  • 90% of the energy consumed gets used at each trophic level

  • Only 10% of the energy gets passed on to the next trophic level

  • Energy at each trophic level is used

    in the normal course of living

    (metabolic processes)

  • The excess energy not used gets released as heat


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Theory of Evolution

  • Species change over timein response to their environment

  • Those individuals that are able to adapt to their environment will survive and pass their genes on to the next generation


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Natural Selection

  • Term used to describe the unequal survival and reproduction of organisms that results from the presence or absence of particular inherited traits


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Natural Selection

  • Example: the peppered moth changed from a white moth with black spots


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Natural Selection

  • Example: the peppered moth changed from a white moth with black spots


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Natural Selection

  • To a black moth with white spots


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Natural Selection

  • To a black moth with white spots


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Natural SelectionThe Peppered Moth

White moth with black spots

Black moth with white spots


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Natural SelectionThe Peppered Moth

White moth with black spots

Black moth with white spots


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Charles Darwin

  • Saw birds called finches on the islands

  • They had adapted to their environment

  • Had different kinds of beaks and feet

  • They changed over time in response to the food that was on their island


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Adaptation through Nat’l Selection

  • Galapagos giant tortoises

  • Also iguanas (lizards)


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Natural Selection

Sometimes called

“Survival of the Fittest”


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Relationship between two organisms

Means “living together”

Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualism

Competition

Predation

Commensalism

Parasitism

Symbiosis


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Predation

  • One eats

  • One is eaten

  • Predator – eats

  • Prey – gets eaten

    Think -(they BETTER pray)

Example: fox and squirrel


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Mutualism

  • Both organisms benefit

  • Is MUTUALLYBENEFICIAL

  • Ex: leaf cutter ants & acacia tree


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Parasitism

  • One benefits

  • One is harmed or weakened

  • Parasite – benefits

  • Host – is used as source of nutrients

  • Ex: ticks on dog

    tapeworm

    mistletoe


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Commensalism

  • One benefits

  • One is neither harmed nor helped

  • They CO-operate with each other

  • ex: shark & remora FISH


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Competition

  • Both are competing for the same resource

  • Could be food, habitat, water, nutrients, sunlight

  • ex: panda & humans (bamboo), fire ants,

    Kudzu, plants


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Primary Succession

  • Occurs in places where there were no living things before

  • Example: on rock after a volcano erupts


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Primary Succession

  • The first plants to inhabit the area are called the pioneer species

  • Lichens can live on bare rock and help create soil for other plants to live


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Primary Succession

  • Over time annual plants and grasses begin to grow


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Primary Succession

  • Birds, rabbits, and insects come to eat the plants and help spread seeds from other areas

  • Shrubs begin to replace the grasses


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Primary Succession

  • Squirrels and deer help spread seeds from pine trees that become the dominant species


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Primary Succession

  • Over time they are replaced by hardwood trees like oak and maple

  • A mature forest is called a climax community


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Secondary Succession

  • Natural disturbances like fire can destroy the ecosystem.

  • Although the forest is gone the soil remains


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Secondary Succession

  • Occurs when seeds & roots begin to grow grasses and annual plants, then shrubs, then pine trees and then finally hardwood trees and a climax community forms again


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Succession

  • Is the change in dominant species over time



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