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Causes of the French Revolution. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities. The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793. Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI. Marie Antoinette.

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Causes of the French Revolution

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Causes of the French Revolution


It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities


The French Monarchy:1775 - 1793

Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI


Marie Antoinette

  • “Madame Deficit”- spent $ on gowns, jewels, gambling, and gifts.

    • Member of Royal Austrian Family

    • Out of touch with society


Economy

  • France’s Economy Decreasing due to:

    • Crop failures

    • King & Queen’s spending

    • Heavy taxes make business hard to conduct

    • War debt

    • ?How were the poor peasants fairing?


The French Urban Poor


Something had to be done!

  • The banks refused to loan more money to the King.

  • Louis XVI didn’t want to cut spending

  • Decided to impose taxes on the nobility

    • He needed approval of this by the Estates-General- an assembly of representatives from all 3 estates.


The Number of Representativesin the Estates General:

Clergy

1st Estate

300

Aristocracy

2nd Estate

300

648

Commoners

3rd Estate


The Suggested Voting Pattern:Voting by Estates

Clergy

1st Estate

1

Aristocracy

2nd Estate

1

1

Commoners

3rd Estate

Louis XVI insisted that the voting pattern remain the same


3rd Estate

  • 97% of people belonged to this estate

    • Bourgeoisie- Middle Class

    • Workers

    • Peasants


Convening the Estates General May, 1789

Last time it was called into session was 1614!

Called to order by Louis XVI to impose taxes on the nobility.


???

  • What do you think happened at the Meeting of the Estates General?


TO BE CONTIUNED…


The French Revolution

"Bourgeois" Phase:

1789-1792

By: Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY


TO BE CONTIUNED…


Convening the Estates General May, 1789

Last time it was called into session was 1614!

Called to order by Louis XVI to impose taxes on the nobility.


At the Meeting

  • Different hopes

    • King wanted tax increase

    • Nobles and clergy wanted to continue lifestyle

    • Middle class wants democracy

    • Peasants want solutions and social equality


  • This is what happened!


“The Third Estate Awakens”

  • The commoners stated that their vote needed to count! They were now “representatives of the nation!”

  • They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.


National Assembly

  • Proclaimed the end of absolute monarchy.

  • Began representative government


“The Tennis Court Oath”

June 20, 1789- National Assembly locked out of meeting room. Broke down door to a inside tennis court and vowed not to leave until a new constitution was written.


Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789

  • A rumor that Louis XVI was planning to send the military to dismantle the National Assembly.

  • Mob attacked the prison to find guns and gunpowder in order to defend city.

  • 18 died.

  • 73 wounded.

  • 7 guards killed.

  • It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].


March of the Women,October 5-6, 1789

*A spontaneous demonstration of women wanting cheaper bread.

*Broke into Versailles, killed some guards.

*Women demanded the return of the king and his family.


The Great Fear: Peasant RevoltIn the Country

  • Fear that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants. (Rumor)

  • Peasants gathered weapons and broke into nobles’ homes- destroying feudal papers.


Start of the French Revolution & The Storming of the Bastille video clip.

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=D17745B5-5E07-4DDB-8215-9320431C045E&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US


The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

August 26, 1789

  • Liberty!

  • Property!

  • Resistance to oppression!


Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)

  • Women played a vital role in the Revolution.

  • But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.

Declaration of the Rights of Womanand of the Citizen (1791)


Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take

Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end.

Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries.

Revolutionaries gain power and seem united.

Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve.

The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes.


Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take

Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.

A strong man emerges and assumes great power.

The extremists try to create a “heaven-on-earth” by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents.

A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs.

Moderate groups regain power. THE REVOLUTION IS OVER!


Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes

1stWhat is the Third Estate?Everything!

2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!

3rd What does it demand? To become something therein!

AbbéSieyès1748-1836


The Pathof the“GreatFear”


Night Session of August 4, 1789

  • Before the night was over:

    • The feudal regime in France had been abolished.

    • All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices.

Equality & Meritocracy!


National Constituent Assembly1789 - 1791

Liberté!

Egalité!

Fraternité!

August DecreesAugust 4-11, 1789

(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)


BUT . . . . .

  • Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]

  • Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.

    • Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate.

Their Goal

Safeguard the right of private property!!


The Tricolor (1789)

The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.

Citizen!


The Tricolor is the Fashion!


The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge


Revolutionary Symbols

Cockade

Liberté

La Republic

Revolutionary Clock


Revolutionary Playing Cards


The “October Days” (1789)

The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.


Planting the Tree of Liberty

1790


Sir Edmund Burke (1790):Reflections on the Revolution in France

The conservative response to the French Revolution


How to Finance the New Govt.?1.Confiscate Church Lands (1790)

One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.


2. Print Assignats

  • Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.

  • Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security.


Depreciation of the Assignat

  • Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.

  • The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.

  • They began circulating as paper currency.

    • Government printed more  INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately].

    • Therefore, future governments paid off their creditors with cheap money.


The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July 12,1790

Juryingvs.Non-Jurying[refractory]Clergy


New Relations Between Church & State

  • Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.

  • The church was reorganized:

    • Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.

    • Bishops  named by the department assemblies.

    • The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy.

  • It transformed France’sRoman Catholic Churchinto a branch of the state!!

Pope Pius VI[1775-1799]


Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791


Constitution of 1791


The French Constitution of 1791:

A Bourgeois Government

  • The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].

    • He could not pass laws.

    • His ministers were responsible for their own actions.

  • A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly.

    • Had the power to grant taxation.

  • An independent judiciary.


The French Constitution of 1791:

A Bourgeois Government

  • “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.

    • 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.

    • Domestic servants were also excluded.

  • A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.

GOAL Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!


83 Revolutionary Departments

February 26, 1790


The Royal Family Attempts to Flee

  • June, 1791

  • Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].

  • Headed toward the Luxembourgborder.

  • The King wasrecognized atVarennes, nearthe border


Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)

  • Women played a vital role in the Revolution.

  • But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.

Declaration of the Rights of Womanand of the Citizen (1791)


The First Coalition &TheBrunswick Manifesto(August 3, 1792)

Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!!

1792-1797

FRANCE

AUSTRIAPRUSSIABRITAINSPAINPIEDMONT

This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.


French Soldiers & the Tricolor:ViveLe Patrie!

  • The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict.

  • ½ of the officer corps had emigrated.

  • Many men disserted.

  • New recruits were enthusiastic, butill-trained.

  • French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.


French Expansion: 1791-1799


Read More About the Revolution


Bibliographic Resources

  • “Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.”http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/courses/europe1/chron/rch5.htm

  • “Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring the French Revolution.”http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/

  • Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and Reaction: Europe, 1789-1849. CambridgeUniversity Press, 2001.

  • “The Napoleonic Guide.” http://www.napoleonguide.com/index.htm


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