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Structured Controversy: Who Owns Your Genes?. Verna Lang, Ph.D. Biology & AP Biology, 9-12 Kenwood High School, Clarksville, TN [email protected] Developer Page. Developer Materials Background Rules of Conduct Overview: Standards Overview: Implementation Overview: Assessment

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Structured Controversy: Who Owns Your Genes?

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Structured controversy who owns your genes l.jpg

Structured Controversy:Who Owns Your Genes?

Verna Lang, Ph.D.

Biology & AP Biology, 9-12

Kenwood High School, Clarksville, TN

[email protected]


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Developer Page

Developer Materials

  • Background

  • Rules of Conduct

  • Overview: Standards

  • Overview: Implementation

  • Overview: Assessment

  • Resources & Credit

    Student Materials

  • Introduction

  • Websites and Print Materials

  • Round One

  • Round Two

  • Round Three

  • Summative Assessment


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Structured Controversy: Who Owns Your Genes?Background

For a structured controversy lesson, teachers select topics that are aligned with the curriculum and offer clear but distinctive alternative positions. Contrasting perspectives are documented with key articles that introduce the major supporting arguments. These articles provide the launching pad for a structured controversy but provide only provide limited background information. The ultimate goal is for the group to achieve consensus through compromise.

Although the process follows a prescribed format with rigid timeframes, it is actually a constructivist and inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning. Students participating in a controversy examine divergent viewpoints to encourage such activities as framing arguments, perspective taking, consequence exploration, behavior justification, and values clarification. They become actively involved in the own learning, participate in rigorous problem-solving, and though these activities, integrate and articulate their own ideas. Factual knowledge is acquired on a need-to-know basis.

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Rules of Conduct

Suggestions

  • The purpose of a structured debate is not to beat the opposing team but to achieve consensus through compromise.

  • Be critical of people’s ideas not the people themselves.

  • During large group forums, only one person can speak at a time.

  • No interruptions are permitted when arguments are being presented.

  • Paraphrase when you want to be sure that you clearly understand something.

  • All time limits must be strictly followed.

  • Every person on the team should speak during the debate.

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Who Owns Your Genes?Overview: Standards

CLE 3210.4.7 Assess the scientific and ethical ramifications of emerging genetic technologies.

SPI 3210.T/E.3 Evaluate the overall benefit to cost ratio of a new technology.

SPI 3210.4.9 Evaluate the scientific and ethical issues associated with gene technologies: genetic engineering, cloning, transgenic organism production, stem cell research, and DNA fingerprinting.

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Who Owns Your Genes? Overview: Implementation

After learning about the human genome project and genetic engineering, I would ask the class “How many of you think you own your own genes?”

I would then start out the activity by having them read the Michael Crichton article:

Who Owns Your Genes?

http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/13/opinion/edcrichton.php

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Excerpt: Who owns your genes?Patenting life

By: Michael Crichton

Published: February 13, 2007

International Herald Tribune

You, or someone you love, may die because of a gene patent that should never have been granted in the first place. Sound far-fetched? Unfortunately, it's only too real.

In the United States, gene patents are now used to halt research, prevent medical testing and keep vital information from you and your doctors. Gene patents slow the pace of medical advance on deadly diseases. And they raise costs exorbitantly: A test for breast cancer that could be done for $1,000 now costs $3,000.

Why? Because the holder of the gene patent can charge whatever he wants, and does. Couldn't somebody make a cheaper test? Sure, but the patent holder blocks any competitor's test. He owns the gene. Nobody else can test for it. In fact, you can't even donate their own breast cancer gene to another scientist without permission. The gene may exist in your body, but it's now viewed as private property.

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Who Owns Your Genes?Overview: Formative Assessment

Students will enter their contrasting and opposing positions into a Venn Diagram as they are forming their discussion ideas, and finish with the consensus in the middle.

http://127.0.0.1:4001/static/tools/Assessments/VennDiagram/VennDiagram.pdf

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Who Owns Your Genes? Resources & Credits

STRUCTURED

CONTROVERSY

REFERENCES

Annenberg Channel

Center for Case Studies

Cooperative Learning Center

Instructional Strategies Online

Let’s Chat

CREDITS

Who Owns Your Genes?

http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/13/opinion/edcrichton.php

Who owns our genes?

http://www.unmc.edu/publicaffairs/discover/spring99stories/owns.htm

Who Owns Our DNA?

http://www.leidenslatest.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?c=29

Should Genes Be Patented?

http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=1534

Genetics and Patenting

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/patents.shtml#4

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Who Owns Your Genes? Student Materials

Introduction

Websites and Materials

Round One

Round Two

Round Three

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Who Owns Your Genes? Introduction

Overview

  • Much of the benefits or potential benefits from genetic engineering come from the work done by private corporations.

  • Patenting human genes protects the rights of the businesses investing in this research by keeping other corporations from profiting from their work and investment. However, what becomes of our basic human right to control our own bodies if a corporation controls how some of our genes are used?

    Learning Goals

  • You should be able to take both sides of this controversy after reading both sides of the issue and defend each side in turn.

  • You will be able to reach a consensus opinion by the end of the lesson.

Materials

Round One

Round Two

Round Three


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Who Owns Your Genes? Introduction

Assessment

  • You will be assessed by construction of a Venn Diagram as the student explores both sides of the controversy.

  • A summative reflective self-assessment is provided as an homework assignment.

    Grouping

  • You will be divided into two evenly numbered groups. Since each group will take turns supporting each side of the controversy. Groups consists of an even number of members on each side.

Materials

Round One

Round Two

Round Three


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Who Owns Your Genes? Websites & Print Materials

Who Owns Your Genes?

http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/13/opinion/edcrichton.php

Who owns our genes?

http://www.unmc.edu/publicaffairs/discover/spring99stories/owns.htm

Who Owns Our DNA?

http://www.leidenslatest.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?c=29

Should Genes Be Patented?

http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=1534

Genetics and Patenting

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/patents.shtml#4

References: Can be printed from the online source in advance if computers are not available to the students.

Introduction

Round One

Round Two

Round Three


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Who Owns Your Genes?

Round One

1. Understand the Position: 15-20 minutes.

  • Review the information package and prepare a compelling argument that support the position to which you have been assigned.

    2. Present the Position: 6-10 minutes.

  • Your team offers its opinions and arguments. The other team listens carefully without interruption.

    3. Open Discussion Forum: 5 minutes.

  • During this stage, teams ask clarifying questions, look for evidence, and search for meaning.

Introduction

Materials

Round Two

Round Three


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Who Owns Your Genes?

Round Two

  • Switch Positions: 5 minutes.

  • Physically shift into the seats formerly occupied by the other team.

  • Your team must develop an argument for the opposite perspective.

    2. Present the Position: 6 minutes.

  • Your team must offer opinions and arguments while the other team listens carefully without interruption.

    3. Open Discussion Forum: 2 minutes.

  • Teams ask clarifying questions, look for evidence, and search for meaning.

Introduction

Materials

Round One

Round Three


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Who Owns Your Genes?

Round Three

1. Reach Consensus: 5 minutes.

  • Both teams meet to reach a single, mutually acceptable position.

  • As a class, we will write the compromise position on the board or on chart paper.

Introduction

Materials

Round One

Round Two


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Summative Assessment

For homework, answer these questions:

Reflective Self-Assessment:

  • Which side of the controversy did you personally support?

  • Did you change your mind after you had to support the opposite viewpoint?

  • How difficult was it to switch to support the opposite viewpoint?

  • Do you still agree with the consensus arrived at by the class? Why or why not?

  • How could this exercise be applied to other controversies that you encounter in life? Explain and give 2 examples.

  • Suppose pollen from a field where genetically modified (GM) corn is growing blows across to a neighbors field and fertilizes some of their corn crop. The company that developed the GM corn is suing the neighbor for using their genes without paying them royalties. You are the judge in this groundbreaking case and must reach a fair ruling for all concerned. Write 3-5 full paragraphs giving your judgment.


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