Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as ‘carbohydrate intolerance with recognition or onset during pregnancy ’, irrespective of the treatment with diet or insulin. GDM-DEFINITION. GDM-WHOM TO SCREEN?.
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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is
defined as ‘carbohydrate intolerance with
recognition or onset during pregnancy’,
irrespective of the treatment with diet or
GDM-WHOM TO SCREEN?
1. Testing should be considered in all adults who are overweight (BMI $25 kg/m2*) and who have one or more additional risk factors:
first-degree relative with diabetes
high-risk race/ethnicity (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American,Pacific Islander)
women who delivered a baby weighing .9 lb or who were diagnosed with GDM
hypertension (blood pressure $140/90 mmHg or on therapy for hypertension)
HDL cholesterol level ,35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or a triglyceride level 250 mg/Dl (2.82 mmol/L)
women with PCOS
A1C $5.7%, IGT, or IFG on previous testing
other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., severe obesity, acanthosisnigricans)
history of CVD
GDM-WHEN TO SCREEN?
Screen for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes at the first prenatal visit in those with risk factors, using standard diagnostic criteria.
In pregnant women not previously known to have diabetes, screen for GDM at 24–28 weeks’ gestation, using a 75-g2-h OGTT and the diagnostic cut points.
Screen women with GDM for persistent diabetes at 6–12 weeks’ postpartum,
using a test other than A1C.
Women with a history of GDM should have lifelong screening for the development of diabetes or prediabetes at least every 3 years.
Women with a history of GDM found to have prediabetes should receive lifestyle interventions or metformin to prevent diabetes.
GDM – HOW TO SCREEN?
Perform a 75-g OGTT, with plasma glucose measurement fasting and at 1 and 2 h, at 24–28 weeks’ gestation in women not previously diagnosed with overt diabetes.
The OGTT should be performed in the morning after an overnight fast of at least 8 h.
the following plasma glucose values are exceeded: