Chemical reactions
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Chemical Reactions. A chemical reaction is a change where one or more substances is converted into one or more new substances reactions are happening all around you. Chemical reactions. The substances that react (the things you start with) are called reactants Left side of the reaction

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Chemical Reactions

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Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions


Chemical reactions1

A chemical reaction is a change where one or more substances is converted into one or more new substances

reactions are happening all around you

Chemical reactions


Chemical reactions 5713930

The substances that react (the things you start with) are called reactants

Left side of the reaction

The substances that are created are called products.

Right side of the reaction

This forms a chemical equations

Rules to this equation- What ever is found on the right must be found on the left- we can’t create or destroy matter


Conservation of mass

Mass is conserved in all chemical reactions

An experiment involving the breakdown of mercuric oxide into mercury and oxygen done by a man named Lavoisier

Mass prior to the reaction equaled mass after the reaction

Lavoisier also created our system of naming compounds

1919 IUPAC- International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

Conservation of mass


Activate

Activate

  • Activation energy: amount of energy needed to begin a reaction

  • Some reactions begin on their own, others require energy


Catalyst

Catalyst

  • Catalyst: speeds up a reaction or lowers activation energy without being consumed

  • When the reaction is complete the catalyst remains unchanged

Ex. Platinum or Iridium in a catalytic converter,


Inhibitor

Inhibitor

  • Inhibitor: (negative catalyst) prevents a reaction or causes it to go slower.

  • Ex. WD – 40, preservatives

  • Enzyme: biological catalyst


Draw this

Draw this


Rate of reaction

Rate of reaction: the amount of product created in a given amount of time

The rate of a chemical reaction can be altered by changing any of the following

1. concentration

2. temperature

3. surface area

4. add a catalyst

Rate of reaction


Balancing equations pay attention to this

Balancing equations- pay attention to this

  • Balance equations: atoms of the same element must be equal on both sides of the equation

  • Sometimes the formulas are given to us, and sometimes we must use what we know to find them.


Steps to balancing

Step 1: Find what elements are being used in the reaction-

Step 2: Write the chemical equation making sure that the oxidation numbers balance each compound

Step 3: Check the equation for balance –see if the same amount of each element is no both sides

Step 4: Use coefficients to balance the equation-sometimes large numbers or multiples will be needed

Steps to balancing


Tips to balancing

1. Don’t use 1 as a coefficient

2. Don’t mess around with the subscripts, since that would change the composition

3. Check to make sure you notice all the places where a particular element may be, it may be in more then one compound

4. Try to balance the monoatomic coefficients last, since changing them won’t change the other compounds

5. When there are a group of atoms that are acting as a unit such as a polyatomic ion and they appear intact on both sides of the equation, it is best to balance them as a self contained group

Tips to balancing


Practice

Practice

  • (NH4)2CO3 ---> NH3 + CO2 + H2O

  • (NH4)2CO3 ---> 2 NH3 + CO2 + H2O

  • What type of reaction is this?

  • Decomposition


More practice

More practice

  • Fe2(SO4)3 + K(SCN) ----> K3Fe(SCN)6 + K2SO4

  • Fe2(SO4)3 + 6 K(SCN) --> K3Fe(SCN)6 + K2SO4

  • Fe2(SO4)3 + 6 K(SCN) -- 2 K3Fe(SCN)6 + K2SO4

  • Fe2(SO4)3 + 12 K(SCN) -- 2 K3Fe(SCN)6+K2SO4

  • Fe2(SO4)3 + 12 K(SCN) -- 2 K3Fe(SCN)6+3 K2SO4


1 synthesis reactions

1. Synthesis reactions

  • Synthesis reactions occur when two substances (generallyelements) combine and form a compound. (Sometimes these are called combination or addition reactions.)

    reactant + reactant  1 product

  • Basically: A + B  AB

    • Example: 2H2 + O2  2H2O

    • Example: C+ O2  CO2


Synthesis reactions

Synthesis Reactions

  • Here is another example of a synthesis reaction


Practice1

Practice

  • Predict the products. Write and balance the following synthesis reaction equations.

  • Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas

    Na(s) + Cl2(g) 

  • Solid Magnesium reacts with fluorine gas

    Mg(s) + F2(g) 

  • Aluminum metal reacts with fluorine gas

    Al(s) + F2(g) 


2 decomposition reactions

2. Decomposition Reactions

  • Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into the elements or in a few to simpler compounds

  • 1 Reactant  Product + Product

  • In general: AB  A + B

  • Example: 2 H2O  2H2 + O2

  • Example: 2 HgO  2Hg + O2


Decomposition reactions

Decomposition Reactions

  • Another view of a decomposition reaction:


Decomposition exceptions

Decomposition Exceptions

  • Carbonates and chlorates are special case decomposition reactions that do not go to the elements.

    • Carbonates (CO32-) decompose to carbon dioxide and a metal oxide

      • Example: CaCO3  CO2 + CaO

    • Chlorates (ClO3-) decompose to oxygen gas and a metal chloride

      • Example: 2 Al(ClO3)3  2 AlCl3 + 9 O2

    • There are other special cases, but we will not explore those in Chemistry I


Practice2

Practice

  • Predict the products. Then, write and balance the following decomposition reaction equations:

  • Solid Lead (IV) oxide decomposes PbO2(s) 

  • Aluminum nitride decomposes

    AlN(s) 


Practice3

Practice

Identify the type of reaction for each of the following synthesis or decomposition reactions, and write the balanced equation:

N2(g) + O2(g)

BaCO3(s) 

Co(s)+ S(s) 

NH3(g) + H2CO3(aq) 

NI3(s) 

Nitrogen monoxide

(make Co be +3)


3 single replacement reactions

3. Single Replacement Reactions

  • Single Replacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound.

  • A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-).

  • element + compound product + product

    A + BC  AC + B (if A is a metal)OR

    A + BC  BA + C (if A is a nonmetal)

    (remember the cation always goes first!)

    When H2O splits into ions, it splits into

    H+ and OH- (not H+ and O-2 !!)


Single replacement reactions

Single Replacement Reactions

  • Another view:


Single replacement reactions1

Single Replacement Reactions

  • Write and balance the following single replacement reaction equation:

  • Zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid

    Zn(s) + HCl(aq) ZnCl2 + H2(g)

    Note: Zinc replaces the hydrogen ion in the reaction

2


Single replacement reactions2

Single Replacement Reactions

2

2

  • Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas

    NaCl(s) + F2(g)  NaF(s) + Cl2(g)

    Note that fluorine replaces chlorine in the compound

  • Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate

    Al(s)+ Cu(NO3)2(aq)


4 double replacement reactions

4. Double Replacement Reactions

  • Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal replaces a metal in a compound and a nonmetal replaces a nonmetal in a compound

  • Compound + compound  product + product

  • AB + CD  AD + CB


Double replacement reactions

Double Replacement Reactions

  • Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go together

  • Example:

    AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(s)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

  • Another example:

    K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq)  KNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s)

2


Practice4

Practice

  • Predict the products. Balance the equation

  • HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) 

  • CaCl2(aq) + Na3PO4(aq) 

  • Pb(NO3)2(aq) + BaCl2(aq) 

  • FeCl3(aq) + NaOH(aq) 

  • H2SO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) 

  • KOH(aq) + CuSO4(aq) 


5 combustion reactions

5. Combustion Reactions

  • Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas.

  • This is also called burning!!! In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the “fire triangle”:1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon)2) Oxygen to burn it with3) Something to ignite the reaction (spark)


Combustion reactions

Combustion Reactions

  • In general: CxHy + O2  CO2 + H2O

  • Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning does cause some by-products like carbon monoxide)

  • Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (octane, as in gasoline, is C8H18)


Combustion

Combustion

  • Example

    • C5H12 + O2 CO2 + H2O

  • Write the products and balance the following combustion reaction:

    • C10H22 + O2 

8

5

6


Mixed practice

Mixed Practice

  • State the type, predict the products, and balance the following reactions:

  • BaCl2 + H2SO4

  • C6H12 + O2 

  • Zn + CuSO4 

  • Cs + Br2 

  • FeCO3 


Total ionic equations honors only

Total Ionic Equations(HONORS ONLY)

  • Once you write the molecular equation (synthesis, decomposition, etc.), you should check for reactants and products that are soluble or insoluble.

  • We usually assume the reaction is in water

  • We can use a solubility table to tell us what compounds dissolve in water.

  • If the compound is soluble (does dissolve in water), then splits the compound into its component ions

  • If the compound is insoluble (does NOT dissolve in water), then it remains as a compound


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