# Chapter 18 Review “Reaction Rates and Equilibrium” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 18 Review “Reaction Rates and Equilibrium”. Chapter 18 Review. Energy that is available to do work is called ____. ____ is defined as the number of atoms, ions, or molecules that react in a given time to form products.

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Chapter 18 Review “Reaction Rates and Equilibrium”

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## Chapter 18 Review“Reaction Rates and Equilibrium”

### Chapter 18 Review

• Energy that is available to do work is called ____.

• ____ is defined as the number of atoms, ions, or molecules that react in a given time to form products.

• What is the name of the minimum energy that colliding particles must have in order to react?

### Chapter 18 Review

• A substance that interferes with a catalyst is a(n) ____.

• What is the arrangement of atoms at the peak of an energy barrier?

• At equilibrium, what is the rate of production of reactants compared with the rate of production of products?

### Chapter 18 Review

• What is the equilibrium constant expression for the following reaction: C(s) + O2(g)↔ CO2(g)

• Which of the following is true about the combustion of carbon: a) the reaction is spontaneous, or b) entropy decreases?

• The rate of a chemical reaction normally ____ as reactant concentration increases.

### Chapter 18 Review

• Why does a higher concentration make a reaction faster?

• The amount of disorder in a system is measured by its ____.

• Entropy measures ____

• What units represent a reaction rate?

• For a complex reaction, the reaction progress curve has several ____.

### Chapter 18 Review

• What happens to a reaction at equilibrium when more reactant is added to the system?

• Which reaction results in the greatest increase in entropy: a) A → B, or b) A → 2B

• If a reaction has an equilibrium constant (Keq) just greater than 1, how do we interpret that information?

### Chapter 18 Review

• A catalyst works by ____.

• If sulfur dioxide and oxygen can be made into sulfur trioxide, what is the reverse reaction?

• Which variable is NOT required to calculate the Gibbs free-energy change for a chemical reaction: a) change in enthalpy, or b) temperature in oC?

### Chapter 18 Review

• What is the effect of adding more water to the following equilibrium reaction: CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3

• In an endothermic reaction at equilibrium, what is the effect of raising the temperature?

• The energy that is available to do work in a reaction is called ____.

### Chapter 18 Review

• What is the numerical value (+ or -) of Gibbs free-energy change for a spontaneous reaction?

• At what stage of a reaction do atoms have the highest energy?

• Which of the following systems has the highest entropy: a) 10 mL of water at 50 oC, or b) 10 mL of water at 100 oC?

### Chapter 18 Review

• What happens to a catalyst in a reaction?

• Write the rate law for the following reaction: A + 2B → C + D

• An elementary reaction converts reactants to products in ____.

• Activation energy is ____.

• Is the melting of ice at a temperature above 0 oC: a) endothermic, or b) exothermic?

### Chapter 18 Review

• Consider the reaction: N2(g) + 3H2(g)↔ 2NH3(g) What is the effect of decreasing the volume on the contained gases?

• Spontaneous reactions always ____ free energy.

• Why does a higher temperature cause a reaction to go faster?

### Chapter 18 Review

• What 2 factors determine whether or not a reaction is spontaneous?

• If a reaction is reversible, what are the relative amounts of reactant and product at the end of the reaction?

• What physical state of nitrogen has the highest entropy?

• What is another name for the catalysts in your body?

### Chapter 18 Review

• What is the order of the following reaction: A + 2B → C + D

• Why does a catalyst cause a reaction to proceed faster?

• In an equilibrium reaction with a Keq of 1 x 108, the ____ are favored.

• Which of the following explains why melting of ice is spontaneous at room temperature and pressure: a) it is accompanied by an increase in entropy, or b) it is accompanied by an increase in energy?

### Chapter 18 Review

• The Keq of a reaction is 4 x 10-7. At equilibrium, the ____ are favored.

• Another name for the activated complex is ____.

• Which change would shift the following reaction to the right: 4HCl(g) + O2(g)↔ 2Cl2(g) + 2H2O(g) a) decrease of pressure, or b) increase of pressure?

### Chapter 18 Review

• In which of these systems is the entropy decreasing: a) salt dissolving in water, or b) a liquid cooling?

• Given: 2NClO(g)↔ 2NO(g) + Cl2(g) An analysis of the equilibrium mixture in a 1 L flask is: NClO = 1.6 mol; NO = 6.4 mol; Cl2 = 0.49 mol. Calculate the value of Keq.

### Chapter 18 Review

• In a two-step reaction mechanism, how many elementary reactions occur?

• The Ksp of calcium hydroxide is 6.5 x 10-6. If 0.10 mol of sodium hydroxide is added to 1 L of 0.0010 M Ca(OH)2, what is the final concentration of the calcium ion?

### Chapter 18 Review

• A mixture of hydrogen and iodine are in equilibrium with hydrogen iodide, as shown in the equation: H2 + I2↔ 2HI Calculate the concentration of HI when the Keq is 1 x 105, the equilibrium concentration of H2 is 0.04 M, and the equilibrium concentration of I2 is 0.009 M.

### Chapter 18 Review

End of Chapter 18 Review