Medieval Europe. AKA the Middle Ages AKA the Dark Ages. In a nutshell. Maintains a strong central government. Struggles to reestablish a strong central government. Roman Empire. Eastern Byzantine Empire. Western Roman Empire. Overrun by barbarians in 476AD. Constantinople
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AKA the Middle Ages
AKA the Dark Ages
Struggles to reestablish
a strong central
Western Roman Empire
Overrun by barbarians in
replaces Rome as the world’s
Includes Italy, Gaul
Britain and Spain.
Resists barbarian invasions
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Roman Empire split between east and west 395AD
The Systems fell apart or collapsed
The Middle Ages
Trade $$$$ Towns
The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church (Social and Belief)
Priests instructed the people in the Faith and acceptable behavior.
Heaven, Hell and Excommunication (expulsion from the Church) guaranteed the compliance of church rules.
Secular (worldly or non-sacred) Role
The Church gained wealth through the tithe and became the largest land holder in Europe.
The Church also controlled education.
Criticizing the Church was considered the capital crime of heresy.
The Sacraments of the Catholic Church
The Church had the authority to administer or withhold the sacraments.
The Church therefore had the power to decide who could marry whom and who could practice religion.
1. The Turks invaded Palestine in 1050
2. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont encouraged all Christians to reclaim the Holy Land.
Initially (at first) the Christians were successful and captured the city of Jerusalem in 1099.
The Crusaders divided the conquered lands into four Crusader states.
Muslim victory of commander Saladin.
Saladin united the Muslims and the recaptured Palestine (the Christian Holy Land).
The Crusaders in Jerusalem surrender.
Unlike the Crusaders who massacred Muslims and Jewish people years earlier, Saladin commanded his soldiers not to kill or massacre the Christians.
Richard the Lion-Hearted, King of England led the Third Crusade in 1189.
Although he won several victories, his armies were unable to recapture Jerusalem.
The Crusades fizzled out.
The Fourth Crusade was likewise unsuccessful.
Later Muslims recaptured the last Crusader states in 1291 and massacred its Christian inhabitants