Animal human mutation
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Animal & Human Mutation. By Kait, Michelle and Tye. Mutations are random changes in the genetic information of an organism. These lead to new varieties and traits in an organism. Most are harmful, but a few are neutral or even beneficial.

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Animal & Human Mutation

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Animal human mutation

Animal & Human Mutation

By

Kait, Michelle and Tye


Animal human mutation

  • Mutations are random changes in the genetic information of an organism. These lead to new varieties and traits in an organism. Most are harmful, but a few are neutral or even beneficial.


Animal human mutation

  • There are two main types of genetic mutations: a point mutation and a frameshift mutation.


Animal human mutation

  • In a point mutation, one of the bases Chemicals in the chain of DNA is replaced by a different base.


Animal human mutation

  • In a frameshift mutation, one base pair is Removed so it throws off all of the codons in the DNA sequence, Leading to mutation


Animal human mutation

  • There are many examples in nature that show how mutations are beneficial or harmful in there existence in their environment. A beneficial or neutral mutation can quickly become harmful when the environments change.


Mutations beneficial or harmful

Mutations-Beneficial or Harmful?

  • The environment greatly affects an organism’s ability to survive, and even a small change can be harmful to some organisms. a Few examples of mutaion are as follows:


Panda bear thumb

Panda Bear Thumb

  • The panda’s "thumb" is actually an enlarged bone of the wrist. In the panda’s environment, bamboo is the main food source. It is difficult to handle and break the hard stalks, so an enlarged wrist bone helps to grasp the bamboo.


Animal human mutation

Cont.

  • In another environment where the food source is not plants, an extra ‘finger’ would have little benefit, perhaps even be cumbersome. The mutated hands of pandas have been beneficial only because of their need for a better grip on bamboo


Naked mole rat

Naked Mole Rat

  • The naked mole rat is a very odd creature that has very little hair and is blind.

  • If it is taken out of its subterranean home it becomes helpless


Animal human mutation

Cont.

  • The rat’s mutations are a huge liability in an environment other than the one it has lived in. Since the naked mole rat has become domestic the mole rat shouldn't have anymore mutation or changes to its body unless it's a part that becomes vestigial and no longer is needed, such as in Darwins theorys.These animals show that their mutations which were beneficial can easily become harmful if it is placed in a different environment.


Rabbits

Rabbits

  • A rabbit with a mutation such as longer legs to run faster will live longer as it can run away from predators.When a rabbit like this finds a mate with the same mutation, they begin to create a new species of rabbits that will survive longer, as it fits into that environment.When breeders pick out certain traits to breed, this is called gene ceiling


Animal human mutation

Cont.

  • The breeders will find two rabbits with longer ears or a shorter tail that increases hearing, or helps with balance and running, and they will keep breeding these to make the rabbits more fit to survive in their habitat. The first few generations of the new breed will have dramatic changes, but as the species grows, the changes will slow down and eventually cap off.

  • Breeding animals for desired traits does not change their DNA code, it only makes new combinations of it.


Moths

Moths

  • Before the industrial revolution, moths were light colored, so they could hide from birds on the light colored bark. During the most active years of the revolution, the air quality was very poor due to soot and silt build up in the air and on the trees.


Animal human mutation

Cont.

  • This changed everything with the moths. The dark moths could not been seen on there trees anymore, whereas the light moths became the main targets or birds and become less common. Due to this, the dark moths became common and the light moths became rare.


Animal human mutation

Cont.

  • Since the End of the Industrial revolution white moths have become more common again, because the soot and ash doesn’t cover trees.


Human mutations

HUMAN MUTATIONS:

  • THE GOITER

  • A goiter is a very noticeable enlargement of the thyroid which and clearly be seen bulging out of the neck. There are different cases of goiters and some or more severe than others. Goiters can be caused by a number of different factors; iodine deficiencies, infection, tumors and other diseases, metal poisoning, and certain drugs can contribute to a formation of a goiter.


Animal human mutation

Cont.

  • all genetic mutations aren't bad. Lots of them account for human strengths such as resistance to disease, an affinity for playing the piano or keen eyesight.


Bibliography

Bibliography

www.trendhunter.com/images/phpthumbnails/6251_1_230.jpeg&imgrefurlhttp://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/mutations.html

www.evitamins.com/healthnotes.asp?ContentID=3566006

http://www.exchangedlife.com/Creation/mutation.htm

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/mutations_03


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