Animal food processing nutrition
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Animal Food Processing & Nutrition. Blood glucose regulation: insulin & glucagon (49-13,12). herbivore ruminant carnivore omnivore detritivore saprobe. 4-part stomach. suspension. substrate. fluid. bulk. Ingestiondigestionabsorptionelimination. (5-21). Sponges (31-1).

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Animal Food Processing & Nutrition

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Animal Food Processing & Nutrition


Blood glucose regulation: insulin & glucagon (49-13,12)


herbivore

ruminant

carnivore

omnivore

detritivore

saprobe


4-part stomach


suspension

substrate

fluid

bulk


Ingestiondigestionabsorptionelimination


(5-21)

Sponges

(31-1)


Gastrovascular cavities

Tubular/complete systems

Annelid (31-19)

typhlosole


Human digestive system

Tongue


Mammal teeth


Human digestive system

Tongue


Peristalsis


Stomach

Acid chyme

Gastroesophageal/cardiac


Human digestive system

Tongue


Sodium bicarbonate

Digestive enzymes


Human digestive system

Tongue


circular folds

brush border


Where the food molecules go

lacteal

chylomicrons


Human digestive system

Tongue


Hormonal control of digestion

/enterogastrone

From Wikipedia


Human digestive system

Tongue


Defecation reflex


Comparison of mammal digestive systems


Human Nutrition

For the most recent USDA dietary guidelines:

http://www.choosemyplate.gov/guidelines/index.html

Major components (macronutrients)

Minor components (micronutrients)


Appetite: it’s complicated

Ghr = ghrelin (+)

NPY = Neuropeptide Y (+)

PYY = peptide YY (-)

CCK = cholecystokinin (-)

Insulin (-)

Leptin (-)

(and there’s more...)

NPY

Leptin deficient


Carbohydrates: Simple vs. complex


Proteins

Essential Amino Acids

Isoleucine

Leucine

Lysine

Methionine

Phenylalanine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Valine


Lipids

Essential Fatty Acids

Alpha linolenic

Linoleic

Lipoproteins:

Tryglycerides

Cholesterol

Proteins


Micronutrients

rickets

(Vit D deficiency)

pellagra

(niacin deficiency)

scurvy

(Vit C deficiency)


Water Soluble Vitamins

Thiamin (B1)

Riboflavin (B2)

Niacin (B3)

Pantothenic Acid (B5)

Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxine (B6)

Biotin

Cobalamin (B12)

Folic Acid/Folacin

Ascorbic Acid (C)

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K


Calcium

Phosphorus

Sulfur

Potassium

Chlorine

Sodium

Magnesium

Iron

Fluorine

Zinc

Copper

Manganese

Iodine

Cobalt

Selenium

Chromium

Molybdenum

Minerals


Antioxidants

Phytochemicals

In section 47.3 & 47.4 - only study the information covered by lecture.


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