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Animal Food Processing & Nutrition. Blood glucose regulation: insulin & glucagon (49-13,12). herbivore ruminant carnivore omnivore detritivore saprobe. 4-part stomach. suspension. substrate. fluid. bulk. Ingestion digestion absorption elimination. (5-21). Sponges (31-1).

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herbivore

ruminant

carnivore

omnivore

detritivore

saprobe



suspension

substrate

fluid

bulk



(5-21)

Sponges

(31-1)


Gastrovascular cavities

Tubular/complete systems

Annelid (31-19)

typhlosole






Stomach

Acid chyme

Gastroesophageal/cardiac



Sodium bicarbonate

Digestive enzymes



circular folds

brush border


Where the food molecules go

lacteal

chylomicrons



Hormonal control of digestion

/enterogastrone

From Wikipedia





Human Nutrition

For the most recent USDA dietary guidelines:

http://www.choosemyplate.gov/guidelines/index.html

Major components (macronutrients)

Minor components (micronutrients)


Appetite: it’s complicated

Ghr = ghrelin (+)

NPY = Neuropeptide Y (+)

PYY = peptide YY (-)

CCK = cholecystokinin (-)

Insulin (-)

Leptin (-)

(and there’s more...)

NPY

Leptin deficient



Proteins

Essential Amino Acids

Isoleucine

Leucine

Lysine

Methionine

Phenylalanine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Valine


Lipids

Essential Fatty Acids

Alpha linolenic

Linoleic

Lipoproteins:

Tryglycerides

Cholesterol

Proteins


Micronutrients

rickets

(Vit D deficiency)

pellagra

(niacin deficiency)

scurvy

(Vit C deficiency)


Water Soluble Vitamins

Thiamin (B1)

Riboflavin (B2)

Niacin (B3)

Pantothenic Acid (B5)

Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxine (B6)

Biotin

Cobalamin (B12)

Folic Acid/Folacin

Ascorbic Acid (C)

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K


Calcium

Phosphorus

Sulfur

Potassium

Chlorine

Sodium

Magnesium

Iron

Fluorine

Zinc

Copper

Manganese

Iodine

Cobalt

Selenium

Chromium

Molybdenum

Minerals


Antioxidants

Phytochemicals

In section 47.3 & 47.4 - only study the information covered by lecture.


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