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Close Reading. Revision Pistorius. 1. In the second paragraph , what does the writer’s word choice suggest about Cassio ‘being caught in a drunken brawl’? . Word Choice. Word Choice. Identify and highlight effective word choice Quote the word(s) Discuss their connotations

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close reading

Close Reading

Revision Pistorius

slide2

1. In the second paragraph, what does the writer’s word choice suggest about Cassio ‘being caught in a drunken brawl’?

word choice1
Word Choice
  • Identify and highlight effective word choice
  • Quote the word(s)
  • Discuss their connotations
  • Explain how these connotations help convey the writer’s point.
denotation
Denotation
  • A word’s meaning/ definition
  • Home: a place where you live
connotations
Connotations
  • A word’s associations
  • Home: security, warmth, personal, emotional investment, family
  • Place of residence has the same denotation, but vey different connotations
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The character who speaks the lines is Cassio, Othello’s friend and lieutenant, after the relatively trifling matter of being caught in a drunken brawl, though Shakespeare might just as well have given them to Othello himself after he killed his wife. Were Oscar Pistorius to hear Shakespeare’s words today they would no doubt strike an anguished chord.

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The character who speaks the lines is Cassio, Othello’s friend and lieutenant, after the relatively trifling matter of being caught in a drunken brawl, though Shakespeare might just as well have given them to Othello himself after he killed his wife. Were Oscar Pistorius to hear Shakespeare’s words today they would no doubt strike an anguished chord.

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“trifling” has connotations of something trivial, it suggests an almost dismissive attitude on the writer’s part. This suggests that he feels that, in comparison to Pistorius’ alleged crime, Cassio’s misdemeanour is of no importance.

imagery1
Imagery
  • Identify the image
  • Quote the image
  • Deconstruct the image (literal root and what it is being compared to)
  • Explain the effect of the comparison
slide14

‘Juliet is the sun’. Romeo compares his beloved to the largest star in our solar system- the giver of life and light. This suggests that he believes Juliet is the most important and powerful thing in his life, clearly conveying the extremely passionate feelings he has for her.

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The character who speaks the lines is Cassio, Othello’s friend and lieutenant, after the relatively trifling matter of being caught in a drunken brawl, though Shakespeare might just as well have given them to Othello himself after he killed his wife. Were Oscar Pistorius to hear Shakespeare’s words today they would no doubt strike an anguished chord.

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The character who speaks the lines is Cassio, Othello’s friend and lieutenant, after the relatively trifling matter of being caught in a drunken brawl, though Shakespeare might just as well have given them to Othello himself after he killed his wife. Were Oscar Pistorius to hear Shakespeare’s words today they would no doubt strike an anguished chord.

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‘strike an anguished chord.’ The playing of a sad musical note that can be easily recognised is being compared to the similarity between Pisotrius’ situation and Cassio’s words. This is an effective comparison because just as Pistorius recognises his own sad situation in Cassio’s tale of destroyed reputation we find something sad we can relate to in ‘an anguished chord’.

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3. Show how the writer’s word choice conveys his feelings about the police investigation in the third paragraph.

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3. Show how the writer’s word choice conveys his feelings about the police investigation in the third paragraph.

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This is not to suggest that Pistorius shot his girlfriend, ReevaSteenkamp, in a jealous rage. All will presumably be revealed in court in due time. Although it does appear, unless the South African police have made an atrocious mess of their investigation, that Pistorius owned a gun and was alone in his house with his victim at the moment of the crime. The only question seems to be whether the killing was premeditated, as the state claims, or, in some way or another, involuntary.

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This is not to suggest that Pistorius shot his girlfriend, ReevaSteenkamp, in a jealous rage. All will presumably be revealed in court in due time. Although it does appear, unless the South African police have made an atrocious mess of their investigation, that Pistorius owned a gun and was alone in his house with his victim at the moment of the crime. The only question seems to be whether the killing was premeditated, as the state claims, or, in some way or another, involuntary.

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‘mess’ has connotations of something chaotic and disorganised. This suggests that the police investigation was lacking structure and ineffective at best.

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Give the meaning of ‘tragic hero’

  • By quoting, or referring closely to the passage, explain how you got this meaning.
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Tragic hero means a person/ character who achieves great things in their life before being undone by a flaw and then suffering a tremendous decline.

  • Paragraph four refers to the achievements of both Othello and Pistorius ‘overcoming seemingly insurmountable objects’.
  • Paragraph five refers to his ‘spectacular fall for grace’. This helps me to understand a tragic hero as one who experiences both a tremendous rise and fall.
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5. Show how the writer’s use of language in paragraph four conveys a sense of Pistorius’ achievements? (4)

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5. Show how the writer’s use of language in paragraph four conveys a sense of Pistorius’ achievements? (4)

use of language
Use of language
  • Imagery
  • Word choice
  • Sentence Structure
  • Tone
  • Other relevant features of style
slide30

Whatever the case, while not forgetting the sorrow and pain of ReevaSteenkamp’s family, Pistorius is, like Othello, a tragic hero. Both triumphed after overcoming seemingly insuperable obstacles. Othello, as a Moor, as a black man who rose to become an admired general in the city state of Venice; Pistorius, in a tale that would have defied even Shakespeare’s powers of imagination and is unequalled in terms of sheer will-power in the history of sport, as an Olympic runner who had his legs amputated between his knees and his ankles at the age of 11 months.

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Whatever the case, while not forgetting the sorrow and pain of ReevaSteenkamp’s family, Pistorius is, like Othello, a tragic hero. Both triumphed after overcoming seemingly insuperable obstacles. Othello, as a Moor, as a black man who rose to become an admired general in the city state of Venice; Pistorius, in a tale that would have defied even Shakespeare’s powers of imagination and is unequalled in terms of sheer will-power in the history of sport, as an Olympic runner who had his legs amputated between his knees and his ankles at the age of 11 months.

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Imagery- ‘overcoming seemingly insuperable obstacles’

  • This compares a person hurdling or climbing over physical impediments to their progress, that appeared insurmountable, to Pistorius overcoming his disability to become an Olympic athlete. This conveys the incredible, almost unbelievable progress he made in his athletic career.
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Word choice

  • “unequalled” has connotations of something unique, memorable and truly outstanding. This suggests that Pisotrius’ sporting achievements have never been matched; they are they pinnacle of all athletic triumphs.
slide34

Show how the writer’s use of language in paragraph five highlights Pistorius’ ‘fall from grace’. (4) (A)

slide35

Show how the writer’s use of language in paragraph five highlights Pistorius’ ‘fall from grace’. (4) (A)

slide36

Even if Pistorius avoids the mandatory life sentence for premeditated murder, even if somehow he were to recover his freedom, his reputation is shot and he is condemned to eke out the rest of his days as a sad shadow of the heroic, world famous figure he had struggled so valiantly to become. But while he stamped his name on the global map by managing to compete against able-bodied athletes in last year’s London Olympic Games, it is within South Africa that he has been most prized and cherished for longest, and where the shock at his fall from grace is most sharply felt.

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Even if Pistorius avoids the mandatory life sentence for premeditated murder, even if somehow he were to recover his freedom, his reputation is shot and he is condemned to eke out the rest of his days as a sad shadow of the heroic, world famous figure he had struggled so valiantly to become. But while he stamped his name on the global map by managing to compete against able-bodied athletes in last year’s London Olympic Games, it is within South Africa that he has been most prized and cherished for longest, and where the shock at his fall from grace is most sharply felt.

word choice2
Word Choice
  • ‘Condemned’ has connotations of guilt, punishment and suffering. This suggests that the rest of Pisotrius’ life will be like a prison sentence, whether he is in jail or not.
imagery2
Imagery
  • a sad shadow of the heroic, world famous figure
  • This compares the rough image cast by an object to what Pistorius’ life will become. This is an effective comparison because just like a shadow is a lesser imitation of the real thing, so his life will pale in comparison with the glory he experience before. It also suggests he will be removed form the glory and ‘limelight’ of fame.
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7. Explain in what sense Pistorius’ story mirrored his country’s (paragraph six)3 (u)

  • Three points
  • Own words
slide42

The very early stages of his life seemed bleak and with little hope, matching the misery of Apartheid within South Africa at that time

  • His life then followed a similar upward trajectory to his country: it overcame Apartheid and he overcame his amputation to play rugby.
  • Both then had great hope for what they could achieve in the future.
slide43

8. How does the first sentence of paragraph eight perform a linking function in the writer’s argument at this point? (2) U

slide44

8. How does the first sentence of paragraph eightperform a linking function in the writer’s argument at this point? (2) U

how to answer
How to answer:
  • Identify in the linking sentence two words or phrases: one pointing back and one pointing forward.
  • Link the backward pointing one with the relevant part of the previous paragraph.
  • Link the forward one with the relevant parts of the following paragraph.
  • You must have followed all four of these steps to be awarded two marks.
slide46

Yet now Pistorius has become a symbol of South Africa’s dark side, revealing the shadows South Africans themselves fear but would rather keep hidden from the world.

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Yet now Pistorius has become a symbol of South Africa’s dark side, revealing the shadows South Africans themselves fear but would rather keep hidden from the world.

slide48

‘Pistoriushas become a symbol’ refers back to the previous discussion of how his story was seen to represent his country’s.

  • ‘dark side’ introduces discussion of the problems within South Africa that he has now become associated with.
situational irony
Situational Irony
  • A discordance between two events.
  • In an effort to restrict viewership of a morally offensive movie, the city council bans exhibition of the movie in theatres. By banning the movie, the city council creates such a heightened awareness of the movie, that more people download and view pirated copies of the movie over the internet - specifically because it was banned - than would have viewed it in the theatres to begin with.
slide52

In 1981, while standing next to his car, President Ronald Regan was hit in the chest by a bullet fired by John Hinkley Jr. In fact, Hinkley\'s bullet completely missed President Reagan, but then ricocheted off the car\'s bulletproof window, and struck President Reagan in the chest.

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Zuma was wishing to promote a positive national message. However, when he was giving the speech the country’s top sportsperson was being charged with murder.

slide54

10. Show how the writer’s use of sentence structure in paragraph nine conveys his argument. (4) A

slide55

10. Show how the writer’s use of sentence structure in paragraph nine conveys his argument. (4) A

comment on the effect of
Comment on the effect of
  • Length- particularly long or short? If so, why?
  • Use of punctuation for effect. Explain what the effect is.
  • Repetition.
  • Word order / inversion.
  • Use of climax or anticlimax.
  • Similar structure of one or more sentences in a paragraph.
answering
Answering
  • Quote part of the sentence
  • Identify important features of sentence structure.
  • Explain how they help to convey the writer’s point
  • (If you are unsure about sentence structure, use ‘The Cat Sat- A Short Guide to help you.)
slide58

Pistorius is not South Africa; he is not Mandela. His compatriots will overcome the blow to his reputation, and by extension theirs, in a way that he himself never shall. Ultimately, his is a universal tale, an epic rise and tragic fall. The spectacle this morning of him shielding his face – his new face, the one the world never knew or suspected he might have – on the way to court, and then reports of him weeping uncontrollably before the magistrate as the enormity of the horror of his predicament and of the crime of which he was being accused sank in, could not but inspire pity, sorrow and regret among all those familiar with his story around the world; as well, perhaps, as feelings of hatred and rage among his dead girlfriend’s relatives and friends. No one will have been left cold by Pistorius’ brutal morality tale.

slide59

Pistorius is not South Africa; he is not Mandela. His compatriots will overcome the blow to his reputation, and by extension theirs, in a way that he himself never shall. Ultimately, his is a universal tale, an epic rise and tragic fall. The spectacle this morning of him shielding his face – his new face, the one the world never knew or suspected he might have – on the way to court, and then reports of him weeping uncontrollably before the magistrate as the enormity of the horror of his predicament and of the crime of which he was being accused sank in, could not but inspire pity, sorrow and regret among all those familiar with his story around the world; as well, perhaps, as feelings of hatred and rage among his dead girlfriend’s relatives and friends. No one will have been left cold by Pistorius’ brutal morality tale.

slide60

“Pistoriusis not South Africa; he is not Mandela.”

  • The semi-colon creates a balanced sentence, both of its clauses state that Pistorius-despite his symbolic importance- is not the most important man in South Africa and his and his country’s destiny are not the same. This helps to reinforce this key point.
slide61

“The spectacle this morning . . . relatives and friends.”

  • An extremely long sentence helps to convey the immensity of what has happened to Pistorius. A list of sympathetic emotions has a cumulative effect, making it seem like it would be almost impossible not to feel sorry for Pisotrius. This, however, is balanced by the semi-colon that links the anger felt by his wife’s family. This underlines that strong emotions of some sort would be felt when considering the case.
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11. How effective a conclusion to the passage do you find the final paragraph to be? You should refer to both ideas and style in your answer(4) A/E

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11. How effective a conclusion to the passage do you find the final paragraph to be? You should refer to both ideas and style in your answer(4) A/E

effective conclusion
Effective Conclusion
  • Returns to /sums up key idea
  • Brings passage to a suitable climax/ anti-climax
  • Returns to the introduction
  • Returns to earlier image
  • Answers a key question
  • Uses a particularly powerful image /phrase.
slide65

One of the lessons Shakespeare draws in his Venetian tragedy is contained in the words of the play’s anti-hero. “Reputation,” Iago replies to the forlorn Cassio, “is an idle and most false imposition.” In Pistorius’ case that would seem to ring true. His past glories are dead to the world, and what remains is bestial.

slide66

One of the lessons Shakespeare draws in his Venetian tragedy is contained in the words of the play’s anti-hero. “Reputation,” Iago replies to the forlorn Cassio, “is an idle and most false imposition.” In Pistorius’ case that would seem to ring true. His past glories are dead to the world, and what remains is bestial.

slide67

One of the lessons Shakespeare draws in his Venetian tragedy is contained in the words of the play’s anti-hero. “Reputation,” Iago replies to the forlorn Cassio, “is an idle and most false imposition.” In Pistorius’ case that would seem to ring true. His past glories are dead to the world, and what remains is bestial.

slide68

Ideas- Effective because itpowerfully returns to the passage’s key idea: whatever happens now to Pistorius, his reputation and career are destroyed. “His past glories are dead to the world”. He will now be known for his wife’s death and his fall form grace rather than his glories.

slide69

Style- Returns to the motif of Othello and the comparison between his tragedy and Pistorius’ own rise and fall. He also repeats the quotation from Othello that started the essay. Having considered Pisotrius’ story this had added significance and we truly understand the similarity.

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