TURBIDITE PALEOSEISMOLOGY
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TURBIDITE PALEOSEISMOLOGY (and some other topics of interest) MARNAUT CRUISE MEETING 22-23 January, 2007. Outline: Seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes Monitoring of turbidity by a sediment trap Fluid vents and carbonate crusts

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Outline: Seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

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Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

TURBIDITE PALEOSEISMOLOGY(and some other topics of interest)MARNAUT CRUISE MEETING22-23 January, 2007

  • Outline:

    • Seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

    • Monitoring of turbidity by a sediment trap

    • Fluid vents and carbonate crusts

    • Other possible monitoring studies and sensors


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Sites of interest


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Turbidites as paleo-earthquake proxies in the deep Marmara basins

Package 1

~40 m

Package 2

~ 70-80 % turbidite-homogenite and ~ 20-30 % hemipelagic units

Le Pichon et al. (2001)

EPSL, 192: 595-616.


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Core C-15 From south part of the

Çınarcık Basin at 1251 m water depth

15 August 553

İstanbul-Kocaeli

Earthquake, intensity = 9

578±31 AD

957±43 AD

26 October 986

İstanbul-Thrace

Earthquake, intensity = 10

Sarı and Çağatay (2006)

Geo-Marine Lett. 26: 69-76.


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Other dated sesimoturbidites

Tekirdağ Basin

1859, 1912 Ganos, and 1965 Saros Gulf, (McHugh et al. (2006, EPSL)

Central Basin

740 AD, 1340 AD and 1912? (McHugh et al. (2006, EPSL)

İzmit Gulf:

181 and 740 AD (McHugh et al. (2006, EPSL)

1509 (Çağatay et al. 2003. Mar. Geol. 202:159-173)


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Study of seismoturbidites

ITU-EMCOL’s core scanner anayses of water/ sediment core IZ-113 in İzmit Gulf

mm

1999 İzmit earthquake event

(95±65 14C y BP)


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Core IZ-115 Karamürsel Basin, İzmit Gulf

(1630±30 14C yr BP)


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Sediment trap

Indented Rotating Sphere (IRS) Sediment Tarp

Time series data

on the amount and

composition of

sedimenting hemi-pelagic material,

and sampling of possible

seismoturbidites


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Fluid vents

Cold fuid venting, carbonate mound, bacterial mats and benthic fauna in SE Tekirdağ Basin

R/V Le Atalante cruise, Marmarascarps project, Armijo et al. (2003)


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

Carbonate crusts as archives of the cyclic changes

in the chemical composition of the fluids

  • Mineralogy

  • Isotopic composition


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

ITU-ISMAR-BO and INGV-Rome seafloor observatory project

in the western Izmit Gulf

Project proposal submitted to Istanbul City Council


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

  • Paolo Favali’s SN-4 (Submarine Network-4, Geostar) sea floor observatory system including the folling sensors:

  • broad-band 3-component seismometer;

  • hydrophone

  • triaxial, single-point current meter;

  • CTD (conductivity, temperature and

  • depth) sensor

  • CH4 sensors (at least 2 in parallel)

  • O2 sensor


Outline seismoturbidites as proxies of past earthquakes

  • Other sensors to monitor fluid seepages and mass flows:

  • Time-lapse cameras with one or two pictures a week to monitor fluids, mass-flows bacterial growth, benthic fauna, etc.

  • 2. Optical backscatter sensors (or turbidometers) to monitor water turbidity and sediment influx.


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